Eco-friendly and facile electrochemical synthesis of sub-micrometer lead powders in deep eutectic solvents using galena as a raw material
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The sub-micrometer lead powders were electrodeposited on a mild steel (MS) substrate in PbS-containing (10–50 mM) choline chloride–urea deep eutectic solvent (ChCl–urea DES) at 353 K and 2.5 V. The electrochemical behaviors of the Pb(II)/Pb on MS and glass carbon electrodes were determined by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurement. It indicates that the reduction of Pb(II) is a quasi-reversible process. The increase in PbS concentration effectively promotes the EPb(II)/Pb shift in positive direction which can facilitate the reduction of Pb(II). The initial nucleation stage of metallic lead on MS electrode is a three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation for diffusion control and the diffusion coefficient of Pb(II) at 353 K is about 2.40 × 10−7 cm2/s. The three-dimensional sub-micrometer lead particles are agglomerated together and composed of many overlapped lead flakes about 150–200 nm. Moreover, the XRD results reveal that metallic lead can be deposited with a face-centered-cubic structure and the strongest peak intensity is (111) plane. This finding provides a theoretical guidance for the one-step preparation of sub-micrometer lead powders using galena concentrate as raw material by an eco-friendly and facile electrochemical approach in close neutral electrolyte, which can efficiently shorten the production flow and realize the integration of metallurgy and material processes.
KeywordsElectrodeposition Sub-micrometer powders Lead sulfide Deep eutectic solvent
The authors acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project Nos. 51604136, 51804149), the Scientific Research Fund of Yunnan Provincial Department of Education (KKJB201752004), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Project No. 2014CB643404).
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