International Ophthalmology

, Volume 39, Issue 12, pp 2749–2755 | Cite as

Reduced vascular perfusion density in idiopathic epiretinal membrane compared to macular pseudohole

  • Luisa Pierro
  • Lorenzo IulianoEmail author
  • Alessandro Marchese
  • Alessandro Arrigo
  • Alessandro Rabiolo
  • Francesco Bandello
Original Paper



To investigate the retinal capillary perfusion density by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) and macular pseudoholes (MPH).


This observational cross-sectional study examined consecutive patients affected by ERM and MPH presenting between June 2017 and December 2017, as well as the 30 eyes of 30 healthy subjects. All patients underwent swept-source OCT-A examination. For each patient, vessel perfusion density and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area were measured.


Twenty-five eyes of 20 patients with ERM and 28 eyes of 24 patients with MPH were enrolled. Thirty eyes of 30 age-matched healthy controls were included. The perfusion density in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) of ERM (0.401 ± 0.012) turned out to be inferior that MPH (0.419 ± 0.018) and controls (0.415 ± 0.017) (p < 0.01), while no significant differences were evident among the three subgroups in the deep capillary plexus (DCP) (p = 0.1). The FAZ area in the SCP was smaller in the ERM group (0.168 ± 0.123 mm2), respectively, than MPH (0.295 ± 0.013 mm2) and controls (0.213 ± 0.107 mm2) (p < 0.01), otherwise no difference were noted in the DCP (p = 0.14).


OCT-A morphological features differ between idiopathic ERM and MPH, showing lower perfusion density in idiopathic ERM compared to MPH.


Epiretinal membrane Macular pseudohole Optical coherence tomography angiography Perfusion density 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Luisa Pierro, Lorenzo Iuliano, Alessandro Marchese, Alessandro Arrigo, and Alessandro Rabiolo declare no conflict of interest. Francesco Bandello is a consultant for: Alcon (Fort Worth,Texas, USA), Alimera Sciences (Alpharetta, Georgia, USA), Allergan Inc (Irvine, California, USA), Farmila-Thea (Clermont-Ferrand, France), Bayer Shering-Pharma (Berlin, Germany), Bausch And Lomb (Rochester, New York, USA), Genentech (San Francisco, California, USA), Hoffmann-La-Roche (Basel, Switzerland), Novagali Pharma (Évry, France), Novartis (Basel, Switzerland), Sanofi-Aventis (Paris, France), Thrombogenics (Heverlee,Belgium), Zeiss (Dublin, USA).

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Ospedale San Raffaele Scientific InstituteVita-Salute UniversityMilanItaly

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