Analysis of pattern electroretinogram signals of early primary open-angle glaucoma in discrete wavelet transform coefficients domain

  • Homa Hassankarimi
  • Seyed Mohammad Reza Noori
  • Ebrahim JafarzadehpourEmail author
  • Shahin Yazdani
  • Fatemeh Radinmehr
Original Paper



To evaluate discrete wavelet transform coefficients and identify descriptors of pattern electroretinogram (PERG) waveforms in order to determine PERG characteristics for optimizing the diagnosis of early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).


Pattern electroretinogram was performed in 30 normal eyes and 30 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma according to the ISCEV protocol. The check size was 0.8° and 16°, and the color was black/white in both groups. The results were analyzed in time domain (TD) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) using the MATLAB software. The mean value, standard deviation, and relative energy of level 6 and 7 detail coefficients (d6, d7) and level 7 approximation coefficients (a7) of Daubechies 4 (db4), Daubechies 8 (db8), Symlet 5 (sym5), Symlet 7 (sym7), and Coiflet 5 (coif5) wavelets were calculated. In all the mentioned wavelets, DWT descriptors were extracted. Signals were reconstructed by inverse DWT. All data obtained by TD and DWT analyses were compared between the two groups.


In both check sizes, a significant attenuation of N95 amplitude was seen in the patient group. The relative energy of a7 of db8 increased significantly in the POAG group in the 0.8° check size. In larger check stimuli, the relative energy of d7 of coif5 decreased significantly and the standard deviation of d7 of sym7 increased markedly in glaucomatous patients (P < 0.05). In small stimuli, N95 descriptor (7N) of db8 had the highest value and showed a significant increase as compared to the POAG group. In the 16° check size, there was no significant difference. A strong correlation was seen between reconstructed signals and originals (r = 0.99).


The DWT can quantify PERG responses more accurately. In agreement with TD and wavelet coefficients domain results, 7N of db8 decomposition can be used as a good indicator for early detection of POAG.


Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) Pattern electroretinography Discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) Wavelet analysis 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors certify that there is no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this article.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Homa Hassankarimi
    • 1
  • Seyed Mohammad Reza Noori
    • 2
  • Ebrahim Jafarzadehpour
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Shahin Yazdani
    • 5
  • Fatemeh Radinmehr
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Medical Physics, School of MedicineIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Departments of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, School of MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Optometry, School of Rehabilitation ScienceIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Optometry, Faculty of RehabilitationIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Ophthalmic Research CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Department of Optometry, School of Rehabilitation ScienceIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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