Involutional lower eyelid entropion: causative factors and therapeutic management

  • Peihsuan Lin
  • Yoshiyuki Kitaguchi
  • Jacqueline Mupas-Uy
  • Maria Suzanne Sabundayo
  • Yasuhiro Takahashi
  • Hirohiko KakizakiEmail author



To summarize proposed causative factors and the outcomes of surgical practices for involutional lower eyelid entropion.


We reviewed the literature on proposed causative factors and the outcomes of surgical practices for involutional lower eyelid entropion, searched on PubMed.


Vertical and horizontal laxities of the lower eyelid, and overriding of the preseptal orbicularis oculi muscle onto the pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle have been proposed as the major causes of involutional lower eyelid entropion. Treatment procedures have been developed over the years to address one or more of these causative factors.


Various causative factors and treatment procedures have been advocated to explain and correct involutional lower eyelid entropion. The appropriate procedure is chosen according to the patient’s condition, such as the presence of vertical laxity, horizontal laxity, and orbicularis oculi muscle overriding. A combination of these procedures to correct multiple factors further decreases the recurrence rate.


Involutional lower eyelid entropion Vertical laxity Horizontal laxity Overriding of preseptal orbicularis oculi muscle Procedures 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Written informed consent for the use of the face photos was obtained from the patients.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peihsuan Lin
    • 1
  • Yoshiyuki Kitaguchi
    • 1
  • Jacqueline Mupas-Uy
    • 1
  • Maria Suzanne Sabundayo
    • 1
  • Yasuhiro Takahashi
    • 1
  • Hirohiko Kakizaki
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Oculoplastic, Orbital, and Lacrimal SurgeryAichi Medical University HospitalNagakuteJapan

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