Advertisement

Involutional lower eyelid entropion: causative factors and therapeutic management

  • Peihsuan Lin
  • Yoshiyuki Kitaguchi
  • Jacqueline Mupas-Uy
  • Maria Suzanne Sabundayo
  • Yasuhiro Takahashi
  • Hirohiko Kakizaki
Review
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

To summarize proposed causative factors and the outcomes of surgical practices for involutional lower eyelid entropion.

Methods

We reviewed the literature on proposed causative factors and the outcomes of surgical practices for involutional lower eyelid entropion, searched on PubMed.

Results

Vertical and horizontal laxities of the lower eyelid, and overriding of the preseptal orbicularis oculi muscle onto the pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle have been proposed as the major causes of involutional lower eyelid entropion. Treatment procedures have been developed over the years to address one or more of these causative factors.

Conclusions

Various causative factors and treatment procedures have been advocated to explain and correct involutional lower eyelid entropion. The appropriate procedure is chosen according to the patient’s condition, such as the presence of vertical laxity, horizontal laxity, and orbicularis oculi muscle overriding. A combination of these procedures to correct multiple factors further decreases the recurrence rate.

Keywords

Involutional lower eyelid entropion Vertical laxity Horizontal laxity Overriding of preseptal orbicularis oculi muscle Procedures 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Written informed consent for the use of the face photos was obtained from the patients.

References

  1. 1.
    Nishimoto H, Takahashi Y, Kakizaki H (2013) Relationship of horizontal lower eyelid laxity, involutional entropion occurrence, and age of Asian patients. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 29:492–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carter SR, Chang J, Aguilar GL, Rathbun JE, Seiff SR (2000) Involutional entropion and ectropion of the Asian lower eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 16:45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marcet MM, Phelps PO, Lai JS (2015) Involutional entropion: risk factors and surgical remedies. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 26:416–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chu YC, Yang JW, Tsai YJ, Wu SY, Liao YL, Chu HY (2016) Correction of involutional entropion with retractor redirection. Orbit 35:207–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beigi B, Kashkouli MB, Shaw A, Murthy R (2008) Fornix fat prolapse as a sign for involutional entropion. Ophthalmology 115:1608–1612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miletic D, Kuzmanovic Elabjer B, Busic M, Biscan Tvrdi A, Petrovic Z, Bosnar D, Bjelos M (2016) Histopathological changes in involutional lower eyelid entropion: the tarsus is thickened! Can J Ophthalmol 51:482–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kakizaki H, Zhao J, Nakano T, Asamoto K, Zako M, Iwaki M, Miyaishi O (2006) The lower eyelid retractor consists of definite double layers. Ophthalmology 113:2346–2350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kakizaki H, Chan W, Madge SN, Malhotra R, Selva D (2009) Lower eyelid retractors in Caucasians. Ophthalmology 116:1402–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Michels KS, Czyz CN, Cahill KV, Foster JA, Burns JA, Everman KR (2014) Age-matched, case-controlled comparison of clinical indicators for development of entropion and ectropion. J Ophthalmol 2014:231487PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Benger RS, Musch DC (1989) A comparative study of eyelid parameters in involutional entropion. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 5:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Olver JM, Barnes JA (2000) Effective small-incision surgery for involutional lower eyelid entropion. Ophthalmology 107:1982–1988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee H, Takahashi Y, Ichinose A, Kakizaki H (2014) Comparison of surgical outcomes between simple posterior layer advancement of lower eyelid retractors and combination with a lateral tarsal strip procedure for involutional entropion in a Japanese population. Br J Ophthalmol 98:1579–1582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nemoto H, Togo T, Maruyama N, Miyabe K, Nakae S, Sumiya N (2017) Orbicularis oculi muscle tightening for involutional entropion. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 70:946–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Olver J (2001) Lacrimal assessment. In: Olver J (ed) Colour Atlas of lacrimal surgery. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp 44–47Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hahn S, Desai SC (2016) Lower lid malposition: causes and correction. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 24:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kakizaki H, Zako M, Mito H, Katori N, Iwaki M (2004) Magnetic resonance imaging of pre- and postoperative lower eyelid states in involutional entropion. Jpn J Ophthalmol 48:364–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Clarke JR, Spalton DJ (1988) Treatment of senile entropion with botulinum toxin. Br J Ophthalmol 72:361–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Iuchi T, Takahashi Y, Kang H, Asamura S, Isogai N, Kakizaki H (2016) Involvement of inward upper eyelid push on the lower eyelid during eyelid closure in development of involutional lower eyelid entropion. Eur J Ophthalmol 26:520–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jyothi SB, Seddon J, Vize CJ (2012) Entropion-ectropion: the influence of axial globe length on lower eyelid malposition. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 28:199–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Damasceno RW, Osaki MH, Dantas PE, Belfort R Jr (2011) Involutional entropion and ectropion of the lower eyelid: prevalence and associated risk factors in the elderly population. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 27:317–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rajabi MT, Gholipour F, Ramezani K, Hosseini SS, Rajabi MB, Tabatabaie SZ (2018) The influence of orbital vector on involutional entropion and ectropion. Orbit 37:53–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Collin JR, Rathbun JE (1978) Involutional entropion: a review with evaluation of a procedure. Arch Ophthalmol 96:1058–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lee JM, Lee H, Park M, Lee TE, Lee YH, Baek S (2011) The volumetric change of orbital fat with age in Asians. Ann Plast Surg 66:192–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Migliori ME, Gladstone GJ (1984) Determination of the normal range of exophthalmometric values for black and white adults. Am J Ophthalmol 98:438–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kersten RC, Hammer BJ, Kulwin DR (1997) The role of enophthalmos in involutional entropion. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 13:195–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kocaoglu FA, Katircioglu YA, Tok OY, Pulat H, Ornek F (2009) The histopathology of involutional ectropion and entropion. Can J Ophthalmol 44:677–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Damasceno RW, Osaki MH, Dantas PE, Belfort R Jr (2011) Involutional ectropion and entropion: clinicopathologic correlation between horizontal eyelid laxity and eyelid extracellular matrix. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 27:321–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lesavoy MA, Gomez-Garcia A, Sheng F, Yospur G, Gimbel ML (2006) Correction of involutional entropion by horizontal tangential wedge excision of the tarsus. Ann Plast Surg 56:330–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Damasceno RW, Heindl LM, Hofmann-Rummelt C, Belfort R, Schlotzer-Schrehardt U, Kruse FE, Holbach LM (2011) Pathogenesis of involutional ectropion and entropion: the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in elastic fiber degradation. Orbit 30:132–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Huang TT, Amayo E, Lewis SR (1981) A histological study of the lower tarsus and the significance in the surgical management of a involutional (senile) entropion. Plast Reconstr Surg 67:585–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bashour M, Harvey J (2000) Causes of involutional ectropion and entropion: age-related tarsal changes are the key. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 16:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sakai E, Shiraishi A, Yamaguchi M, Ohta K, Ohashi Y (2012) Blepharo-tensiometer: new eyelid pressure measurement system using tactile pressure sensor. Eye Contact Lens 38:326–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jones LT (1960) The anatomy of the lower eyelid and its relation to the cause and cure of entropion. Am J Ophthalmol 49:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dryden RM, Leibsohn J, Wobig J (1978) Senile entropion: pathogenesis and treatment. Arch Ophthalmol 96:1883–1885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Altieri M, Kingston AE, Bertagno R, Altieri G (2004) Modified retractor plication technique in lower lid entropion repair: a 4-year follow-up study. Can J Ophthalmol 39:650–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Boboridis K, Bunce C, Rose GE (2000) A comparative study of two procedures for repair of involutional lower lid entropion. Ophthalmology 107:959–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Caldato R, Lauande-Pimentel R, Sabrosa NA, Fonseca RA, Paiva RS, Alves MR, Jose NK (2000) Role of reinsertion of the lower eyelid retractor on involutional entropion. Br J Ophthalmol 84:606–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Park MS, Chi MJ, Baek SH (2006) Clinical study of single-suture inferior retractor repair for involutional entropion. Ophthalmologica 220:327–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kakizaki H, Zako M, Kinoshita S, Iwaki M (2007) Posterior layer advancement of the lower eyelid retractor in involutional entropion repair. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 23:292–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cook T, Lucarelli MJ, Lemke BN, Dortzbach RK (2001) Primary and secondary transconjunctival involutional entropion repair. Ophthalmology 108:989–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Erb MH, Uzcategui N, Dresner SC (2006) Efficacy and complications of the transconjunctival entropion repair for lower eyelid involutional entropion. Ophthalmology 113:2351–2356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kreis AJ, Shafi F, Madge SN (2013) Transconjunctival entropion repair: the backdoor approach. Orbit 32:271–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ben Simon GJ, Molina M, Schwarcz RM, McCann JD, Goldberg RA (2005) External (subciliary) vs internal (transconjunctival) involutional entropion repair. Am J Ophthalmol 139:482–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Quickert MH, Rathbun E (1971) Suture repair of entropion. Arch Ophthalmol 85:304–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Seiff SR, Kim M, Howes EL Jr (1989) Histopathological evaluation of rotation sutures for involutional entropion. Br J Ophthalmol 73:628–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Scheepers MA, Singh R, Ng J, Zuercher D, Gibson A, Bunce C, Fong K, Michaelides M, Olver J (2010) A randomized controlled trial comparing everting sutures with everting sutures and a lateral tarsal strip for involutional entropion. Ophthalmology 117:352–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Singh SK, Das H, Lavaju P (2009) Efficacy of lid everting suture in the management of involutional lower eyelid entropion using 4-0 silk versus 4-0 chromic catgut. Nepal J Ophthalmol 1:37–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tsang S, Yau GS, Lee JW, Chu AT, Yuen CY (2014) Surgical outcome of involutional lower eyelid entropion correction using transcutaneous everting sutures in Chinese patients. Int Ophthalmol 34:865–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wright M, Bell D, Scott C, Leatherbarrow B (1999) Everting suture correction of lower lid involutional entropion. Br J Ophthalmol 83:1060–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rougraff PM, Tse DT, Johnson TE, Feuer W (2001) Involutional entropion repair with fornix sutures and lateral tarsal strip procedure. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 17:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jang SY, Choi SR, Jang JW, Kim SJ, Choi HS (2014) Long-term surgical outcomes of Quickert sutures for involutional lower eyelid entropion. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 42:1629–1631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Baek JS, Choi SC, Jang SY, Lee JH, Choi HS (2016) Comparison of surgical outcome between Quickert suture and Quickert suture with modified lateral tarsal strip in involutional lower eyelid entropion. J Craniofac Surg 27:198–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Altieri M, Iester M, Harman F, Bertagno R, Capris P, Venzano D, Baldi F, Altieri G (2003) Comparison of three techniques for repair of involutional lower lid entropion: a three-year follow-up study. Ophthalmologica 217:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bulter JBV (1948) A simple operation for entropion. Arch Ophthalmol 40:665–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fox SA (1951) Relief of senile entropion. Arch Ophthalmol 46:424–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Foulds WS (1961) Surgical cure of senile entropion. Br J Ophthalmol 45:678–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dalgleish R, Smith JL (1966) Mechanics and histology of senile entropion. Br J Ophthalmol 50:79–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bick MW (1966) Surgical management of orbital tarsal disparity. Arch Ophthalmol 75:386–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Barrett RV, Meyer DR (2012) The modified Bick quick strip procedure for surgical treatment of eyelid malposition. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 28:294–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vahdani K, Ford R, Garrott H, Thaller VT (2018) Lateral tarsal strip versus Bick’s procedure in correction of eyelid malposition. Eye.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41433-018-0048-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Leibovitch I (2010) Lateral wedge resection: a simple technique for repairing involutional lower eyelid entropion. Dermatol Surg 36:1412–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tenzel RR (1969) Treatment of lagophthalmos of the lower lid. Arch Ophthalmol 81:366–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Anderson RL, Gordy DD (1979) The tarsal strip procedure. Arch Ophthalmol 97:2192–2196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jordan DR, Anderson RL (1989) The lateral tarsal strip revisited. The enhanced tarsal strip. Arch Ophthalmol 107:604–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lopez-Garcia JS, Garcia-Lozano I, Gimenez-Vallejo C, Jimenez B, Sanchez A, de Juan IE (2017) Modified lateral tarsal strip for involutional entropion and ectropion surgery. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 255:619–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Georgescu D (2014) Surgical preferences for lateral canthoplasty and canthopexy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 25:449–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hamra ST (1998) The zygorbicular dissection in composite rhytidectomy: an ideal midface plane. Plast Reconstr Surg 102:1646–1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ishida Y, Takahashi Y, Kakizaki H (2016) Posterior layer advancement of lower eyelid retractors with transcanthal canthopexy for involutional lower eyelid entropion. Eye 30:1469–1474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wheeler JM (1938) Spastic entropion correction by orbicularis transplantation. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 36:157–162PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Asamura S, Kakizaki H, Shindou E, Itani Y, Isogai N (2014) What is the best strategy for Asians with involutional entropion? J Craniofac Surg 25:972–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wies FA (1954) Surgical treatment of entropion. J Int Coll Surg 21:758–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lance SE, Wilkins RB (1991) Involutional entropion: a retrospective analysis of the Wies procedure alone or combined with a horizontal shortening procedure. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 7:273–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Serin D, Buttanri IB, Karslioglu S, Sevim MS, Buttanri B, Akbaba M (2013) The efficacy of the combined procedure in involutional entropion surgery: a comparative study. Kor J Ophthalmol 27:405–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hoh HB, Harrad RA (1998) Factors affecting the success rate of the Quickert and Wies procedures for lower lid entropion. Orbit 17:169–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Marabotti A, Bedei A, Lanza G, Cariello A, Giannecchini I (2001) Involutional entropion surgery: a modified technique. Ophthalmologica 215:169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nowinski TS (1991) Orbicularis oculi muscle extirpation in a combined procedure for involutional entropion. Ophthalmology 98:1250–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ding J, Chen F, Zhai W, Zhao H, Pan Y (2014) Orbicularis oculi muscle transposition for repairing involutional lower eyelid entropion. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 252:1315–1318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Steel DHW, Hoh HB, Harrad RA, Collins CR (1997) Botulinum toxin for the temporary treatment of involutional lower lid entropion: a clinical and morphological study. Eye 11:472–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Iozzo I, Tengattini V, Antonucci VA (2016) Senile lower lid entropion successfully treated with botulinum toxin A. J Cosmet Dermatol 15:158–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    McDonald JE, Knollinger AM (2018) The use of hyaluronic acid subdermal filler for entropion in canines and felines: 40 cases. Vet Ophthalmol.  https://doi.org/10.1111/vop.12566 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Athavale DD, O’Donnell BA (2018) Lower eyelid entropion repair with retractor mobilization and insertion onto the anterior surface of the tarsal plate. Orbit 37:121–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yip CC, Choo CT (2000) The correction of oriental lower lid involutional entropion using the combined procedure. Ann Acad Med Singapore 29:463–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Khan SJ, Meyer DR (2002) Transconjunctival lower eyelid involutional entropion repair: long-term follow-up and efficacy. Ophthalmology 109:2112–2117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ho SF, Pherwani A, Elsherbiny SM, Reuser T (2005) Lateral tarsal strip and quickert sutures for lower eyelid entropion. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 21:345–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Barnes JA, Bunce C, Olver JM (2006) Simple effective surgery for involutional entropion suitable for the general ophthalmologist. Ophthalmology 113:92–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Quist LH (2002) Tarsal strip combined with modified Quickert-Rathbun sutures for involutional entropion. Can J Ophthalmol 37:238–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Beigi B (2001) Orbicularis oculi muscle stripping and tarsal fixation for recurrent entropion. Orbit 20:101–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dunbar KE, Cox C, Heher KL, Kapadia MK (2017) Lateral tarsal strip plus skin-muscle flap excision in the treatment of lower eyelid involutional entropion. Orbit 36:375–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rabinovich A, Allard FD, Freitag SK (2014) Lower eyelid involutional entropion repair with lateral tarsal strip and infraciliary rotation sutures: surgical technique and outcomes. Orbit 33:184–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Spinelli HM, Tabatabai N, Nunn DR (2006) Correction of involutional entropion with suborbicularis septal and lateral canthal tightening. Plast Reconstr Surg 117:1560–1567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Olali C, Burton V, Samalila E (2010) Involutional lower eyelid entropion: combined Wheeler’s and Wedge resection of tarsal plate. West Afr J Med 29:117–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nakauchi K, Mimura O (2012) Combination of a modified Hotz procedure with the Jones procedure decreases the recurrence of involutional entropion. Clin Ophthalmol 6:1819–1822CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peihsuan Lin
    • 1
  • Yoshiyuki Kitaguchi
    • 1
  • Jacqueline Mupas-Uy
    • 1
  • Maria Suzanne Sabundayo
    • 1
  • Yasuhiro Takahashi
    • 1
  • Hirohiko Kakizaki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oculoplastic, Orbital, and Lacrimal SurgeryAichi Medical University HospitalNagakuteJapan

Personalised recommendations