International Ophthalmology

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 497–505 | Cite as

Accommodative esotropia: the state of the art

  • Andrea LemboEmail author
  • Massimiliano Serafino
  • Marika Dello Strologo
  • Richard A. Saunders
  • Rupal H. Trivedi
  • Edoardo Villani
  • Paolo Nucci



To review the state of the art of Accommodative Esotropia (AE) through careful study of what has been reported up to the point in literature.


A literature search was done on PubMed using key words including “Accommodative esotropia”, “Infantile esotropia”, “Strabismus” and “Accommodation”. We systematically reviewed and critically appraised what has been written about AE and we tried to analyze that according to the current management of AE.


Accommodative Esotropia (AE) is a form of strabismus characterized by convergent misalignment of the visual axes that can be associated with hyperopia and abnormal fusional divergence. Also abnormal accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio could be found. In lots of cases, AE initially presents as an intermittent esodeviation at age 1.5 to 4 years. The prevalence of AE has been estimated near 1-2% in the United States. The only treatment with an optical correction usually is successful in re-establishing alignment, but surgical correction is necessary in approximately 30% of cases.


Accommodative esotropia Infantile esotropia Strabismus Accommodation Amblyopia 



The study was supported in part by an unrestricted grant to MUSC-SEI from Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc., New York, NY.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no financial or proprietary interest in any product mentioned herein.

Human and animals rights

This research does not involve some human participants and/or animals.

Informed consent

Informed consent has been not requested.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) MultimedicaUniversity of Milan, Eye Clinic San Giuseppe HospitalMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Storm Eye InstituteMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

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