International Ophthalmology

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 2069–2076 | Cite as

Diabetes and pachymetry changes in pregnancy

  • Florence SantiaguEmail author
  • Azam Bakhtiari
  • Tajunisah Iqbal
  • Nurliza Khaliddin
  • Van C. Lansingh
  • Visvaraja Subrayan
Original Paper



Purpose of this study is to evaluate changes in the central corneal thickness (CCT) in patients during the third trimester and postpartum phases of normal pregnancy, pregestational diabetes mellitus (DM), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).


This was a prospective study. Patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited from the obstetric clinic. They were grouped into normal pregnancy, pregestational DM, and GDM. Ophthalmic assessment and haematological investigations were done during the third trimester (after 28 weeks of gestation) and in the postpartum phase (6 weeks postpartum).


A total of 192 pregnant patients were recruited for this study. Out of the 192 patients, only 143 of them came back for their follow-up 6 weeks postpartum. A total of 70 (36.5%) normal pregnancy patients, 51 (26.6%) DM patients, and 71 (36.9%) GDM patients were included in this prospective study. Our study showed that the CCT decreased postpartum in all three groups. Patients in all three groups did not have significantly different CCT during the third trimester of pregnancy and postpartum phase. However, patients who had thicker CCT irrespective of the grouping during the third trimester also had a thicker CCT post-delivery (p value <0.001). However, these changes did not appear to affect refractive error and visual acuity.


Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy did not appear to influence the CCT.


Cornea Estrogen Gestational diabetes Pregnancy in diabetics Visual acuity 



Funding received from the Ophthalmology Department, University Malaya Medical Center, Malaysia—grant for research. No financial conflicts of interest involving any of the co-authors. We would like to acknowledge Mr. Vasu Devan from University Putra Malaysia for proofreading this manuscript.


This study was funded by University Malaya Grant Number E000058-20001 (LMD/RESEARCH 363/2012 & LMD/RESEARCH 364/2012).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that he/she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Ethical MEC reference number 883.7 (University Malaya Ethics Committee).

Informed consent

Informed and written consent was obtained from each individual participants prior to the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florence Santiagu
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Azam Bakhtiari
    • 1
  • Tajunisah Iqbal
    • 1
  • Nurliza Khaliddin
    • 1
  • Van C. Lansingh
    • 2
  • Visvaraja Subrayan
    • 1
  1. 1.University Malaya Medical CenterKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.University of MiamiCoral GablesUSA
  3. 3.Shah Alam HospitalShah AlamMalaysia

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