The analysis of posterior segment findings in term and premature infants using RetCam images
To analyze posterior segment findings in term and premature infants using the RetCam image database.
RetCam images taken of infants born between January 2012 and December 2015 were reviewed. Group 1 included infants with posterior segment findings other than retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Group 2 included infants with mild-to-severe ROP. The baseline characteristics, anterior segment findings, and percentage of infants who received treatment were compared among the 2 groups.
In total, 331 out of 3440 infants (9.6%) were included. The major diagnoses in group 1 (n = 75) were retinal hemorrhages in 26, optic nerve pathologies in 14, findings associated with a metabolic disease in 6, ocular tumors in 5, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in 4, and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy in 4 cases. The mean birth weight (g) (2481.9 ± 700.5 in group 1 vs 1090.5 ± 330.9 in group 2), gestational age (weeks) (35.9 ± 3.4 in group 1 vs 28.2 ± 2.4 in group 2), and postmenstrual age at initial examination (35.9 ± 3.4 in group 1 vs 28.2 ± 2.4 in group 2) were significantly different among the 2 groups (p < 0.001). Thirteen out of 75 cases in group 1 and 124 out of 256 ROP cases received therapy (p < 0.001). Anterior segment pathologies were found in 13.3% of group 1 versus 7.8% of group 2 infants (p = 0.216).
A considerable number of infants suffered from posterior segment disorders other than ROP. The majority of these infants were term babies. Routine fundus screening may be recommended in all newborns to diagnose all posterior segment pathologies other than ROP.
KeywordsPosterior segment finding RetCam image Term infant Premature infant Retinal hemorrhage Optic nerve pathology Retinopathy of prematurity
Availability of data
All the authors have full control of all primary data and agree to allow the International Ophthalmology to review their data upon request.
All of the authors meet all four of the following conditions: make substantial contributions to conception and design, and/or acquisition of data, and/or analysis and interpretation of data; participate in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; give final approval of the version to be submitted; agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they do not have any financial conflict of interest related to the study.
- 1.Gilbert C, Fielder A, Gordillo L, Quinn G, Semiglia R, Visintin P, Zin A, International NO-ROP Group (2005) Characteristics of infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with low, moderate, and high levels of development: implications for screening programs. Pediatrics 115:e518–e525CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 8.Vinekar A, Govindaraj I, Jayadev C, Kumar AK, Sharma P, Mangalesh S, Simaldi L, Avadhani K, ShettyB Bauer N (2015) Universal ocular screening of 1021 term infants using wide-field digital imaging in a single public hospital in India—a pilot study. Acta Ophthalmol 93:e372–e376CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 9.Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine Section on Ophthalmology, American Association of Certified Orthoptists, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Academy of Ophthalmology (2003) Eye examination in infants, children, and young adults by pediatricians: organizational principles to guide and define the child health care system and/or improve the health of all children. Ophthalmology 110:860–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Vinekar A, Gilbert C, Dogra M, Kurian M, Shainesh G, Shetty B, Bauer N (2014) The KIDROP model of combining strategies for providing retinopathy of prematurity screening in underserved areas in India using wide-field imaging, tele-medicine, non-physician graders and smart phone reporting. Indian J Ophthalmol 62:41–49CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar