Brazil and the Paris Agreement: REDD+ as an instrument of Brazil’s Nationally Determined Contribution compliance
- 57 Downloads
The Paris Agreement on climate change recognises the central role of forests in achieving the well-below 2 °C goal through mitigation options covered by the REDD+ mechanism. Moreover, the actions that a country intends to take to address climate change under the new treaty are translated through the implementation of its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). In this context, Brazil included REDD+ in its NDC submitted to the UNFCCC. Here, an overview of Brazil’s NDC is provided; focusing on its relation to the forest scope. Likewise, a discussion on the implications for the REDD+ governance framework in supporting the NDC compliance process is presented. Ultimately, it is argued that the goals announced in the country’s NDC can be considered unpretentious, and a paradox to the conservation approach. Brazil is not keeping up the momentum of accepting the importance of the driving role of forests along with other sectors for the accomplishment of its NDC. For instance, this can be clearly noticed by the flexibilisation of the forest national legislation adopted in 2012. On the other hand, the country has the potential to contribute more than the announced targets in the attempt to limit expected global warming. However, even to achieve the current established targets, the government must better engage in public policies to leverage and change the country’s course of development, which is still characterised by the dichotomy ‘development versus environmental conservation’.
KeywordsREDD+ Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) Brazil Forest governance Compliance
This paper is part of first author’s Ph.D. research. The research was financed by CAPES—Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel, Ministry of Education, Brazil. We also appreciate the reviewers and the editor for their careful review and constructive suggestions.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- ABC Observatory. (2015). Análise dos Recursos do Programa ABC Foco na Amazônia Legal: Potencial de redução de GEE e estudo de caso sobre o Programa ABC em Paragominas. Online available at: http://mediadrawer.gvces.com.br/abc/original/gv_agro_v3_digital_em-duplas.pdf. Accessed 5 Feb 2017.
- Abranches, S. (2014). The political economy of deforestation in Brazil and payment-for-performance finance. Center for Global Development. CGD Climate and Forest Paper Series, 10, 1–52.Google Scholar
- Aguiar, A., Vieira, I., Assis, T., Dalla-Nora, E., Toledo, P., Santos-Júnior, R., et al. (2016). Land Use Change Emission Scenarios: Anticipating a forest transition process in the Brazilian Amazon. Global Change Biology, 22(21), 821–840.Google Scholar
- Albrecht, E. (2017). Planned obsolescence: Economically reasonable product or intentional damage contrary to public policy? In J. Hoffmann (Ed.), 15 Jahre Zentrum für Rechts-und Verwaltungswissenschaften and der Brandenburgischen Technischen Universität (Vol. 103, pp. 124–126).Google Scholar
- Albrecht, E., Egute, T., & Wanki, E. (2016). Paris Agreement. In E. Albrecht, T. Egute & E. Wanki (Eds.), International Environmental Law (IEL), agreements and introduction (5th ed., pp. 142–151). BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg.Google Scholar
- Alves, E. M. (2014). Brazilian environmental public policies analysis. World Academy of science, engineering and technology. International Journal of Social, Management, Economics and Business Engineering, 08(04), 990–994.Google Scholar
- Alves-Pinto, H., Latawiek, A., Oliveira-Filho, F., Duchelle, A., Wunder, S., Strassburg, B. et al. (2016). From REDD+ to Brazilian ENREDD+: A way forward? Forests, 07, 1–19. (in press).Google Scholar
- Assunção, J., & Chiavari, J. (2015). Towards efficient land use in Brazil. In The New Climate Economy, pp 1–28.Google Scholar
- Assunção, J., Gandour, C., & Rocha, R. (2012). Deforestation slowdown in the legal Amazon: Prices or policies. Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) Working Paper: Pontífica Universidade Católica (PUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Azevedo, A., Alencar, A., Moutinho, P., Ribeiro, V., Reis, T., Stabile, M., et al. (2016). Panorama sobre o Desmatamento na Amazônia em 2016. IPAM. Online available at: http://ipam.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/panorama-desmatamento-amazo%CC%82nia-2016.pdf. Accessed 5 Oct 2017.
- Bessa, L., Oliveira, M., Abers, R., & Salomão, C. (2005). The Green Governance in Brazilian Cerrado. Green Governance, Green Peace: A Program of International Exchange in Environmental Governance, Community Resource Management, and Conflict Resolution. Online available at: http://www.globetrotter.berkeley.edu/GreenGovernance/papers/Brazil2005b.pdf. Accessed 18 Dec 2018.
- Cenamo, M., & Lima, L. (2014). Estratégia Nacional de REDD+: Falta diálogo entre Governo Federal e estados. Informativo IDESAM Website. Online available at: http://www.idesam.org.br/estrategia-nacional-de-redd-falta-dialogo-entre-governo-federal-e-estados/. Accessed 6 Oct 2017.
- Cenamo, M., Soares, P., & Karst, J. (2014). Contributions to the National REDD+ strategy: A proposal for allocation between States and the Union. Manaus, AM: GCF—Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force.Google Scholar
- CGIAR—Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research. (2013). Going from Red to Green: The landscape approach. Online available at: http://www.cgiar.org/consortium-news/going-from-red-to-green-the-landscape-approach/. Accessed 12 Feb 2018.
- Chiavari, J., & Lopes, C. (2015). Brazil’s New Forest Code: How to navigate the complexity. Climate policy initiative. Online available at: https://climatepolicyinitiative.org/publication/brazils-new-forest-code-how-to-navigate-the-complexity/. Accessed 24 Feb 2018.
- Chomitz, K., Buys, P., De Luca, G., Thomas, T., & Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S. (2006). At loggerheads? Agricultural expansion, poverty reduction, and environment in the tropical forests. Washington, DC: World Bank Policy Research Report.Google Scholar
- Conservation International. (2011). Sustainable landscape approach. Crystal Drive Arlington, VA: Conservation International.Google Scholar
- Corfee-Morlot, J., Kamal-Chaoui, L., Donovan, M., Cochran, I., Robert, A., & Teasdale, P. (2009). Cities, climate change and multilevel governance. Page OECD Environment Working Papers.Google Scholar
- Costa, R. (2016). Insecure land rights in Brazil: Consequences for rural areas and challenges for improvement. Climate Policy Initiative Report, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Denier, L., Scherr, S., Shames, S., Chatterton, P., Hovani, L., & Stam, N. (2015). The little sustainable landscapes book. Oxford: Global Canopy Programme.Google Scholar
- DeShazo, J., Lal Pandey, C., & Smith, Z. (2016). Why REDD will fail. Studies in Environmental Policy. Published by Routledge Focus, Taylor and Francis Group, London, UK and New York, USA.Google Scholar
- Di Gregorio, M., Fatorelli, L., Pramova, E., May, P., Locatelli, B., & Brockhaus, M. (2016). Integrating mitigation and adaptation in climate and land use policies in Brazil: A policy document analysis. Sustainability Research Institute Paper, 94, Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Working Paper n. 257, University of Leeds, UK.Google Scholar
- Dutschke, M., & Manfrinato, W. (2016). REDD Plus—Good bye to private sector conservation? JIQ, Magazine on Climate and Sustainability, 22(01), 10–12.Google Scholar
- EDF—Environmental Defense Fund. (2016). Cost-effective emissions reductions beyond Brazil’s international target: Estimation and valuation of Brazil’s potential climate asset. Pedro Piris-Cabezas, Ruben Lubowski, Steve Schwartzman, Alexander Golub and Nathaniel Keohane. Online available at: www.edf.org/sites/default/files/cost-effective-emissions-reductions-brazil.pdf. Accessed 6 Oct 2017.
- Edwards, R. (2016). Linking REDD+ to Support Brazil’s Climate Goals and Implementation of the Forest Code. Forest Trends Public-Private Co-Finance Initiative Report. Google Scholar
- Elzen, M., Fekete, H., Admiraal, A., & Forsell, N. (2015). Enhanced policy scenarios for major emitting countries: Analysis of current and planned climate policies and selected enhanced mitigation measures. PBL Policy Brief, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency.Google Scholar
- FAO—Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2012). Role of Forests in Climate Change. Online available at: http://www.fao.org/forestry/climatechange/en/. Accessed 18 Dec 2018.
- Fatorelli, L., Gebara, M., May, P., Zhang, S., & DiGregorio, M. (2015). The REDD+ governance landscape and the challenge of coordination in Brazil. InfoBrief, 115, CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.Google Scholar
- Fearnside, P. (2006). Mitigation of climatic change in the Amazon. In W. F. Laurance & C. A. Peres (Eds.), Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests (Chapter 19, pp. 353–376).Google Scholar
- Fraundorfer, M., & Rabitz, F. (2015). Brazil and the Durban platform. Ambitions and expectations. Giga Focus, 08, 1–8.Google Scholar
- Gebara, M. F. (2015a). Governança de Paisagens Florestais impactos sociais da bricolagem institucional em São Félix do Xingu. Federal Rio de Janeiro University. Human and Social Science Department. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (In Portuguese).Google Scholar
- Gebara, M. F. (2015b). Brazil: Spoiler or leader? REDD Monitor. Online available at: http://www.redd-monitor.org/2015/11/05/guest-post-brazil-spoiler-or-leader/#1. Accessed 6 Oct 2017.
- Gebara, M. F. (2016). Is Brazil starting to lose the battle against deforestation? Forestless. Online available at: https://forestless.net/2016/11/03/is-brazil-starting-to-lose-the-battle-against-deforestation/. Accessed 6 Oct 2017.
- Gebara, M. F., & Agrawal, A. (2017). Beyond rewards and punishments in the Brazilian Amazon: Practical implications of the REDD+ discourse. Forests, 07, 1–26.Google Scholar
- Gebara, M. F., May, P., Sampaio, R., & Thuault, A. (2012). REDD+ initiatives in Brazil—How global climate accords are reflected on the ground? The international society for ecological economics, conferences. Online available at: http://www.isecoeco.org/conferences/isee2012-versao3/pdf/sp30.pdf. Accessed 6 Oct 2017.
- Gebara, M., & Thuault, A. (2013). GHG mitigation in Brazil’s land use sector: An introduction to the current National Policy landscape. WRI Working Paper, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
- Hall, A. (2013). Combating deforestation through REDD+ in the Brazilian Amazon: A new social contract? Sustainability in Debate, Brasília, Brazil, 04(01), 79–98.Google Scholar
- IDDRI—Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations. (2015). Beyond the numbers: Understanding the transformation induced by INDCs, Study n. 05/15, IDDRI—MILES Project Consortium, Paris, France.Google Scholar
- IPCC—Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Google Scholar
- Junior, M., Chalita, M., Godoy, A., & Silva, C. (2008). Importancia da Inserção de Projetos de Conservação da Floresta Amazonica no Protocolo de Kyoto para Redução do Desmatamento. Informações Econômicas, 38(05), 37–50.Google Scholar
- Lima, R., & Antoniazzi, L. (2016). The Paris Agreement and the future of land use in Brazil. AGROÍCONE Policy Brief, INPUT, Iniciativa para o Uso da Terra, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Maia, H., Hargrav, J., Gómez, J., & Röper, M. (2011). Avaliação do Plano de Ação para Prevenção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia Legal. Rio de Janeiro: GIZ, IPEA and CEPA.Google Scholar
- Malhi, Y., Timmons Roberts, J., Betts, R., Killen, T., Li, W., & Nobre, C. (2008). Climate change, deforestation and the fate of the Amazon. Science Magazine, 319, 169–172.Google Scholar
- Marcovitch, J. (2011). A Gestão da Amazônia: Ações empresariais, políticas públicas, estudos e propostas. Edusp—Editora da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. (In Portuguese).Google Scholar
- McFarland, B. (2010). Origins, development and potential of the international REDD market, a significant research paper. The American University of Washington, DC, USA. Online Available at: http://www.american.edu/sis/gep/upload/Brian-McFarland-s-FINAL-SRP-2.pdf. Accessed 2 Mar 2018.
- MCTI—Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Secretariat of Policies and Programs of Research and Development, and General Coordination of Global Climate Change. (2013). Estimativas Anuais de Emissões de Gases de Efeito Estufa no Brasil, Brasília, Brazil. Google Scholar
- MCTI—Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Secretariat of Policies and Programs of Research and Development, and General Coordination of Global Climate Change. (2016). Third National Communication of Brazil to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Volume III. Brasília, Brazil. Google Scholar
- MMA—Ministry of Environment. (2008). Plano Nacional sobre Mudança do Clima. Online available at: http://www.mma.gov.br/clima/politica-nacional-sobre-mudanca-do-clima/plano-nacional-sobre-mudanca-do-clima. Accessed 5 Jan 2017.
- MMA—Ministry of Environment. (2015a). NDC do Brasil. Online available at: http://redd.mma.gov.br/pt/redde-a-indc-brasileira. Accessed 18 Dec 2018. (In Portuguese).
- MMA—Ministry of Environment. (2015b). ENREDD+ - National Strategy on REDD+. Online available at: http://redd.mma.gov.br/pt/estrategia-nacional-para-redd. Accessed 18 Dec 2018.
- MMA—Ministry of Environment. (2016). REDD+ as a means of implementation of Brazil’s NDC. Online available at: http://redd.mma.gov.br/en/redd-and-brazil-s-ndc. Accessed 6 Oct 2017.
- Moutinho, P., Cristovam, M., & Mesquita, I. (2014). Comentários sobre a Estratégia Brasileira de REDD+. Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazônia—IPAM. Documento interno, Brasília, Brazil. (In Portuguese).Google Scholar
- Pham, T., Moeliono, M., Brockhaus, M., Le, N., & Katila, P. (2017). REDD+ and Green Growth: Synergies or discord in Vietnam and Indonesia. International Forest Review, 19, 1–13.Google Scholar
- Pires, M., & Ortega, V. (2013). O Cadastro Ambiental Rural na Amazônia. Brasília: Conservação Internacional, Brasília, Brazil.Google Scholar
- PRODES. (2016). Estimativa da Taxa de Desmatamento da Amazônia em 2015–2016. Brasília, Brazil: Ministério da Ciencia e Tecnologia.Google Scholar
- PRODES. (2018). Estimativa da Taxa de Desmatamento da Amazônia em 2017–2018. Brasília, Brazil: Ministério da Ciencia e Tecnologia.Google Scholar
- Ravikumar, A., Larson, A., Myers, R., & Trench, T. (2018). Inter-sectoral and multilevel coordination alone do not reduce deforestation and advance environmental justice: Why bold contestation works when collaboration fails. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, 36(08), 1437–1457.Google Scholar
- Reis, T., Bortolotto, F., Lopes, G., & Braga, L. (2017). Challenges and Opportunities Strengthen the National Contributions in the Agricultural and Forestry Sector in Latin America: The Case of Brazil. Plataforma Climática Latinoamericana, Amazon Environmental Research Institute—IPAM, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Reis, T., Moutinho, P., & Azevedo, A. (2015). Mudanças Climáticas: Panorama para a COP20 em Lima-Peru. Belém: Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia—IPAM.Google Scholar
- Ribeiro, S. (2013). Can REDD+ be a conservation strategy for Cerrado? Enciclopédia Biosfera, 09(17), 478–490.Google Scholar
- Romeiro, V., & Biderman, R. (2015). A closer look at Brazil’s New Climate Plan (INDC). World Resources Institute. Online available at: http://www.wri.org/blog/2015/09/closer-look-brazils-new-climate-plan-indc. Accessed 23 Jan 2017.
- Sano, H. (2011). Governance in environmental policy: Advances and challenges to develop a Brazilian Green Economy. Paper presented at the UNRISD conference Green Economy and Sustainable Development: Bringing Back the Social Dimension. Draft version pdf. Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
- SECOM—Secretariat for Social Communication Presidency of the Federative Republic of Brazil. (2011). Climate Change in Brazil—Key, facts and figures. COP17/CMP7, Brasília, Brazil.Google Scholar
- SFB—Brazilian Forest Service. (2013). Brazilian Forests at a glance 2013: Data from 2007 to 2012. Brasília: Ministério do Meio Ambiente, MMA.Google Scholar
- Sparovek, G., Barreto, A., Klug, I., Papp, L., & Lino, J. (2010). A Revisão do Código Florestal Brasileiro. Novos Estudos, CEBRAP, 88, 181–205.Google Scholar
- UNFCCC—United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (2014). Report of the Conference of the Parties on its nineteenth session, held in Warsaw from 11 to 23 November 2013. FCCC/CP/2013/10/Add.1 .Google Scholar
- Valberg, A. (2011). Brazil’s Role in Environmental Governance. Analysis of Possibilities for Increased Brazil–Norway Cooperation. FNI Report 08/2011, Fridtjof Nansen Institute. Report for the Norwegian Ministry of the Environment. Google Scholar
- Vatn, A., Marostica, S., Viana, V., & Salviati, V. (2017). Management regimes for REDD+: An analysis of the regime in the RDS Rio Negro REDD+ pilot. NORAGRIC Report n. 82. Norwegian University of Life Sciences Faculty of Landscape and Society Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norway.Google Scholar
- Viola, E. (2010). A Política Climática Global e o Brasil: 2005–2010. Revista Tempo do Mundo, 02(02), 81–117.Google Scholar
- Work Bank (2017). Overview Brazil. Online available at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/brazil/overview. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.