, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 517–536 | Cite as

Conditioning Tendency Among Preschool and Primary School Children: Cross-Sectional Research

  • Kerem CoşkunEmail author


The present study aims to understand children’s behavior within classroom settings in terms of conditioning theories. It was designed based on grounded theory. Data were collected through participant observation and 98 children whose ages varied between 6 and 10 years were observed. Data were inductively analyzed. Findings indicated that kindergarteners and first graders tend toward classical conditioning and need more teacher control to adjust to classroom settings, whereas children aged from 9 to 10 years behave based on operant conditioning. It is proposed that differences in conditioning stem from teachers’ classroom management strategies, and cognitive development.


Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Kindergarteners Primary school children Grounded theory 


Author Contributions

Reporting of the present study, data collection, literature review, data analysis were conducted by KC, author of the present study.


The present research did not receive any fund.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Competing interests

There is no competing interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Primary EducationArtvin Coruh UniversityArtvinTurkey

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