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IoT Ecosystem: A Survey on Devices, Gateways, Operating Systems, Middleware and Communication

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In this era of research and technology, Internet of things (IoT) takes a prominent part in the evolution of applications of the various field like health, education, smart cities, homes, agriculture etc. This paper provides a survey of the IoT ecosystem. All the components of IoT and their significance has been elaborated. The smart sensors collaborate through wireless communication and internet, with zero human activity, to deliver automated intelligent applications. In this internet world, machine-to-machine (M2M) technologies are the first phase of the IoT. As IoT is expanding, it is bringing together vast technologies as in Big Data, Artificial Intelligent, Machine Learning to tackle the huge data and devices. This paper starts by providing an overview of the taxonomy of the IoT ecosystem. Then, it provides a technical overview of IoT enabling architectures, devices, gateways, operating systems (OS), middleware, platforms, data storage, security, communication protocols and interfaces for the data flow in an ecosystem. This paper also discusses the key hurdles that need to be tackled for expanding IoT. A relation between IoT and new technologies like big data, cloud and fog computing has been briefed. Finally, it presents the growing applications that IoT delivers.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7



Analog to digital convertor


Bluetooth low energy

CSI camera port:

Camera Serial Interface camera port


Digital to analog computer

DSI display port:

Display Serial Interface display port


First In First Out


Global Positioning System


High Definition Multimedia Interface


Hyper Text Transfer Protocol


Inter IC (Integrated Circuit)


Internet Engineering Task Force


Local Area Network


Liquid Crystal Display


Long Range Wireless Area Network


Long Term Evolution


Lightweight Internet Protocol


Microcontroller Unit


Micro Universal Serial Bus


Narrow Band IoT


Radio Frequency Identification


Reduced Instruction Set Computer


Routing protocol


Real Time Operating System


Serial peripheral interface


Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter


User Datagram Protocol


Micro Internet Protocol


Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter


Wireless Local Area Network


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Correspondence to Sharu Bansal.

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Bansal, S., Kumar, D. IoT Ecosystem: A Survey on Devices, Gateways, Operating Systems, Middleware and Communication. Int J Wireless Inf Networks (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10776-020-00483-7

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  • IoT devices
  • OS
  • Middleware
  • Communication
  • Gateways
  • Security