In this era of research and technology, Internet of things (IoT) takes a prominent part in the evolution of applications of the various field like health, education, smart cities, homes, agriculture etc. This paper provides a survey of the IoT ecosystem. All the components of IoT and their significance has been elaborated. The smart sensors collaborate through wireless communication and internet, with zero human activity, to deliver automated intelligent applications. In this internet world, machine-to-machine (M2M) technologies are the first phase of the IoT. As IoT is expanding, it is bringing together vast technologies as in Big Data, Artificial Intelligent, Machine Learning to tackle the huge data and devices. This paper starts by providing an overview of the taxonomy of the IoT ecosystem. Then, it provides a technical overview of IoT enabling architectures, devices, gateways, operating systems (OS), middleware, platforms, data storage, security, communication protocols and interfaces for the data flow in an ecosystem. This paper also discusses the key hurdles that need to be tackled for expanding IoT. A relation between IoT and new technologies like big data, cloud and fog computing has been briefed. Finally, it presents the growing applications that IoT delivers.
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Analog to digital convertor
Bluetooth low energy
- CSI camera port:
Camera Serial Interface camera port
Digital to analog computer
- DSI display port:
Display Serial Interface display port
First In First Out
Global Positioning System
High Definition Multimedia Interface
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Inter IC (Integrated Circuit)
Internet Engineering Task Force
Local Area Network
Liquid Crystal Display
Long Range Wireless Area Network
Long Term Evolution
Lightweight Internet Protocol
Micro Universal Serial Bus
Narrow Band IoT
Radio Frequency Identification
Reduced Instruction Set Computer
Real Time Operating System
Serial peripheral interface
Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
User Datagram Protocol
Micro Internet Protocol
Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
Wireless Local Area Network
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Bansal, S., Kumar, D. IoT Ecosystem: A Survey on Devices, Gateways, Operating Systems, Middleware and Communication. Int J Wireless Inf Networks (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10776-020-00483-7
- IoT devices