Cryptanalysis of the Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication by Using Four Particle Cluster States Protocol
It shows that there are some serious security issues in the controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) with authentication protocol based on four particle cluster states via quantum one-time pad and local unitary operations. Some information of the identity strings of the receiver and the controller can be stolen without being detected by the intercept-selectively-measure-resend (ISMR) attack. Furthermore, an eavesdropper (Eve) can eavesdrop on some information of the secret message that the sender transmits. In addition, the receiver can obtain half of information about the secret message without any active attack and the permission of the controller, which is not allowed in a secure CQSDC protocol. The receiver can take the ISMR attack to obtain more information about the secret message without the permission of the controller. If running the protocol many times, the identity strings of the receiver and the controller can be completely acquired by Eve. Finally, the original CQSDC protocol is improved to a secure one.
KeywordsControlled quantum secure direct communication Cluster state Intercept-selectively-measure-resend attack
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61502101 and 61871120), and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20171458) and the Six Talent Peaks Project of Jiangsu Province (Grant No. XYDXX-003).
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