nameGist: a novel phonetic algorithm with bilingual support
- 18 Downloads
Phonetic algorithm plays an essential role in many applications including name-matching, database record linkage, spelling correction, search recommendations, etc. Since 1918, many phonetic algorithms have been proposed by the researchers. Soundex, Match Rating Codex, NYSIIS, Metaphone, and Double Metaphone are among the frequently used phonetic algorithms. These algorithms were primarily developed for English phonetics, and they perform well for their intended purposes. Above algorithms do not support Bengali Language and show poor performance for Bengali phonetic representation in the English language. Some phonetic algorithms, e.g., NameSignifcance, Modified NameSignifcance, etc., have been proposed recently by researchers to deal with Bengali phonetic names but their performances are not up to the mark for English names. Besides, these algorithms do not support names written in the Bengali Language, i.e., Bengali Unicode. Bengali language, also known as Bangla among natives, is counted as the seventh most spoken language in the world. More than 250 million people, around the world, speak in Bengali. Use of Bengali Unicode is increasing in Bangladesh and around the globe with the increasing use of computers everywhere. For example, in different healthcare systems, a patient’s name can be stored both in English representation of Bengali or Bengali Unicode. Being unable to process Bengali Unicode leads to failure of linking information of the same patient from multiple databases. This creates a problem in record linkage or entity matching. In this paper, we proposed a novel phonetic algorithm—nameGist which can efficiently encode Bengali phonetic names in English representation, Bengali Unicode names and English phonetic names. We have tested nameGist in various datasets which contains Bengali Phonetic names, Bengali Unicode names, English Phonetic (American or British) names and a mixture of these types. In each case, our proposed algorithm, nameGist, performed better than other algorithms in terms of accuracy and F-measure. NameGist can be used to solve record linkage and entity resolution problems for Bengali, English, and mixed names effectively.
KeywordsPhonetic algorithm Record linkage Data mining Bengali
This research is supported by the ICT Division, Ministry of Posts, Telecommunications and Information Technology, the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
Funding was provided by Ministry of Posts, Telecommunications and Information Technology (Grant No. 56.00.0000.028.33.025.14-154).
- Bengali (Bangla) - University of Washington. (2017). Retrieved October 4, 2018, from https://asian.washington.edu/fields/bengali-bangla.
- Beyond the Top 1000 Names - USA Social Security Administrations. (2017). Retrieved October 4, 2018, from https://www.ssa.gov/oact/babynames/limits.html.
- Frequently Occurring Surnames from the Census 2000 - US Census Bureau. (2014). Retrieved October 4, 2018, from https://www.census.gov/topics/population/genealogy/data/2000_surnames.html.
- International Mother Language Day - UNESCO. (2017). Retrieved October 4, 2018, from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/international-mother-language-day/.
- Jellyfish - a python library for doing approximate and phonetic matching of strings. (2018). Retrieved October 4, 2018, from https://github.com/jamesturk/jellyfish.
- Khan, A. B. A., Ghazanfar, M. S., & Khan, S.I. (2017). Application of phonetic encoding for analyzing similarity of patient’s data: Bangladesh perspective. In 2017 IEEE Region 10 Humanitarian Technology Conference (R10-HTC), (pp. 664–667). IEEE.Google Scholar
- Khan, S. I., & Hoque, A. S. M. L. (2016). An analysis of the problems for health data integration in Bangladesh. In 2016 International Conference on Innovations in Science, Engineering and Technology (ICISET), (pp. 1–4).Google Scholar
- Khan, S. I., & Hoque, A. S. M. L. (2016). Similarity analysis of patients’ data: Bangladesh perspective. In 2016 International Conference on Medical Engineering, Health Informatics and Technology (MediTec), (pp. 1–5). IEEE.Google Scholar
- Khan, S. I., & Hoque, A. S. M. L. (2016). Towards development of national health data warehouse for knowledge discovery. Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (Vol. 385, pp. 413–421). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Khan, S. I., Hoque, A. S. M. L., & Ullah, M. (2016). National health data warehouse bangladesh for remote health monitoring: Features, problems and privacy issues. In Remote Health Monitoring Workshop.Google Scholar
- Lewis, M. P. (2018). Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Dallas: SIL International.Google Scholar
- Match rating approach - Wikipedia. (2017). Retrieved October 4, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Match_rating_approach.
- Open source name database. (2013). Retrieved October 4, 2018, from https://github.com/smashew/NameDatabases.
- Philips, L. (1990). Hanging on the metaphone. Computer Language, 7(12), 39–43.Google Scholar
- Philips, L. (2000). The double metaphone search algorithm. C/C++ Users Journal, 18(6), 38–43.Google Scholar
- Soundex System - National Archives. (2007). Retrieved October 4, 2018, from https://www.archives.gov/research/census/soundex.html.
- Unicode Bengali name collection. (2017). Retrieved October 4, 2018, from https://bit.ly/2FZEmZV.
- UzZaman, N., & Khan, M. (2004). A bangla phonetic encoding for better spelling suggesions. Tech. rep., BRAC University.Google Scholar
- UzZaman, N., & Khan, M. (2005). A double metaphone encoding for bangla and its application in spelling checker. Tech. rep., BRAC University.Google Scholar
- World population prospects - United Nations. (2017). Retrieved October 4, 2018, from https://population.un.org/wpp/DataQuery/.