Migration Cost and Energy-Aware Virtual Machine Consolidation Under Cloud Environments Considering Remaining Runtime

  • Heyang Xu
  • Yang LiuEmail author
  • Wei Wei
  • Ying Xue


By live migration technology, multiple virtual machines (VMs) can be consolidated into a fewer physical servers and the idle ones can be shut down or switched to low-power mode, thus reducing the energy consumption of cloud data centers. However, live migration can result in performance degradation of migrated VMs, or even interrupting their services. At the same time, live migration can also aggravate the overheads of data transmissions and produce additional energy consumption in cloud data centers. All these negative influences belong to migration cost (MC) caused by VM migration, which becomes an important cost factor that can’t be ignored. Otherwise, another important concern, remaining runtime of the migrated VM, also has influence on the efficiency of VM consolidation, which is not well addressed as well. This paper investigates MC-aware VM consolidation problem and formulates the problem as a multi-constraint optimization model by considering migration cost and remaining runtime of VMs. Based on the proposed model, a heuristic algorithm, called MC-aware VM consolidation (MVC) algorithm, is developed. Finally, based on a real-world cloud trace, we conduct extensive experimental studies to verify the validity of the proposed model and algorithm. Experimental results show that, compared with some popular algorithms, MVC algorithm can effectively decrease the migration cost and, at the same time guarantee the energy consumption within a certain low level.


Live migration Migration cost Remaining runtime Virtual machine consolidation 



This work is partially supported by the National Natural and Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61472460, 61702162 and U1504607), Natural Science Project of the Education Department of Henan Province (Nos. 19A520021 and 17A520004), Program for Innovative Research Team (in Science and Technology) in University of Henan Province (No. 17IRTSTHN011), Science and Technology Project of Science and Technology Department of Henan Province (No. 172102110013), Plan for Nature Science Fundamental Research of Henan University of Technology (No. 2018QNJH26), Plan For Scientific Innovation Talent of Henan University of Technology (No. 2018RCJH07) and the Research Foundation for Advanced Talents of Henan University of Technology (2017025).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Information Science and EngineeringHenan University of TechnologyZhengzhouChina

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