Kolmogorov–Smirnov Test for Statistical Characterization of Photopyroelectric Signals Obtained from Maize Seeds

  • J. E. Rojas-Lima
  • F. A. Domínguez-PachecoEmail author
  • C. Hernández-Aguilar
  • L. M. Hernández-Simón
  • A. Cruz-Orea
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. ICPPP-19: Selected Papers of the 19th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena


Photothermal techniques are useful experimental methodologies for characterization of the optical and thermal parameters of different materials like maize seeds due to its advantages such as non-invasive and non-destructive nature. Among these techniques, the photopyroelectric microscopy was applied in the present research to obtain thermal images where each of their coordinates represents amplitude values of the photopyroelectric signal, indicating differences in the structural components of both genotypes of maize seeds. The random variations of the amplitude of the photopyroelectric signal caused by the heterogeneous nature of the thermal properties of the samples, were represented by histograms to identify the probability density function underlying the data sample, observing that in the case of the maize seed with floury structure, the amplitude variations could be described statistically by the transformed Moyal distribution when a linear transformation with censored data was applied to the data set obtained from the thermal image with a significance level of 0.001, according to the Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistical test for goodness-of-fit. In the case of the photopyroelectric signal obtained from a maize seed with crystalline structure, it was not possible to describe statistically the amplitude variations of the signal by means of the transformed Moyal distribution because it did not pass the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, so the same statistical test for goodness of fit was applied to both genotypes of maize seeds for analyzing the populations of the data sample, in order to find the distributions that best fit each population with a significance level of at least 0.05 increasing in this way the power of the test. The distributions with the best fit were logistic, log-logistic, uniform, least extreme value and normal.


Kolmogorov–Smirnov test Modified Moyal distribution Photopyroelectric microscopy Photopyroelectric signal Photothermal techniques Stochastic modeling 



The authors thank the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), through the CONACYT, COFAA, EDI, SIP Scholarship Projects. One of the authors (J.E. Rojas-Lima) is grateful for all the support provided by the IPN through the PIAS-2016-2017 Academic Project. One of the authors (A. Cruz-Orea) is grateful for the economic support of CONACYT through Project 241330. Also, we thank Ing. Esther Ayala at the Physics Department of CINVESTAV-IPN for her technical support.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica (ESIME), Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación (SEPI)Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN)Mexico CityMéxico
  2. 2.Departamento de FísicaCentro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV) del IPNMexico CityMéxico

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