International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 331–355 | Cite as

Exploring Local Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Endangered François’ Langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) in a Human-Modified Habitat

  • Kefeng NiuEmail author
  • Wei Liu
  • Zhi Xiao
  • Ankang Wu
  • Tianyou Yang
  • Isidoro Riondato
  • Amanda L. Ellwanger
  • Andie Ang
  • Marco Gamba
  • Yeqin Yang
  • Cristina Giacoma


Understanding local community attitudes toward wildlife is critical for making context-sensitive conservation planning and management decisions that may facilitate better human–wildlife coexistence. We conducted questionnaire-based interviews with local households in Qinglong Village of Mayanghe National Nature Reserve (MNNR) in China from March to August 2015. We used a mixed analysis technique based on a theoretical framework of categorical variables to explain attitudes to investigate the key factors that influenced local attitudes toward Endangered François’ langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi). We found that 53% (40, N = 75) of interviewees liked François’ langurs presence around the village, 27% did not, and 20% were neutral. Respondents with favorable attitudes to langurs associated them mainly with tangible benefits from local tourism and their positive aesthetic and emotional values. Respondents with negative attitudes to langurs associated them with tangible costs such as crop feeding and the destruction of their houses. Over half (N = 9) of respondents with neutral attitudes associated langurs with various cost and benefit trade-offs. Overall, local people tended to have slightly negative perceptions of the langurs’ impacts at the household level, while they had very positive perceptions of their impacts at the community level. Ordinal logistic regression models revealed that age, gender, and impact perceptions were significantly associated with local residents’ attitudes toward the langurs at the household and community levels. We suggest that such socioeconomic monitoring efforts should be periodically conducted in protected areas such as MNNR, especially in the context of rapid economic and infrastructure development.


China Ethnoprimatology Human and primate coexistence Local attitudes and perceptions Perceived cost and benefit Primate conservation Theoretical framework of categorical variables 



We thank UNI.COO Project (No.: 27164) of University of Turin, Italy and Primate Conservation Inc., USA (No.: PCI #1394) for funding this survey. We appreciate the editor-in-chief, Dr. Joanna Setchell, so much for her great support in submission of this longer manuscript. We are grateful to Dr. Joanna Setchell and three anonymous reviewers for their excellent comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. We thank the Department of Guizhou Forestry, MNNR Administration and the Qinglong community committee for permissions to implement this survey in Qinglong Village, China. We want to give our sincere thanks to all the respondents in Qinglong Village who graciously participated in this research. During the survey, we received invaluable support from Director Weiyong Zhang (Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve Administration), Director Luming Wei (MNNR), Guoyong Xiao, Zhijin Xiao and Bo Liu in Qinglong Village, and staff members Lei Shi (FNNR), Qixian Zou, Peng Zhang, Xiugang Yan and Xiaolin Mao (MNNR). We would like to express our gratitude to Shaoguo Peng from Hongyan Village and Peng Yang, Lianlian Luo, Qunfeng Wu, and Chong Ran from Tongren University for their assistance with interview surveys. We are lucky to have the help from Dr. Chia L. Tan (LVDI International, USA) and Qi Mu (Politecnico di Torino, Italy) on the project and manuscript preparation. Special thanks to the “San Paolo Company (Compagnia di San Paolo)” Foundation for support of Niu’s Ph.D. Scholarship in University of Turin, Italy.

Author Contributions

KN, TY, ZX, AW, and YY designed the questionnaire; KN and TY collected the data; KN and WL analyzed the data and developed the methodology; KN led the writing with contributions from WL and ALE. AA, CG, MG, and IR provided editorial advice and revised it for accuracy and content, and all the authors approved the final version of the manuscript.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Life Sciences and Systems BiologyUniversity of TurinTurinItaly
  2. 2.Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve AdministrationTongrenPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Institute of Eastern-Himalaya Biodiversity ResearchDali UniversityDaliPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.International Institute for Applied Systems AnalysisLaxenburgAustria
  5. 5.Mayanghe National Nature Reserve AdministrationTongrenPeople’s Republic of China
  6. 6.Renhuai Forestry AdministrationZunyiPeople’s Republic of China
  7. 7.Primate Conservation Research InstituteTongren UniversityTongrenPeople’s Republic of China
  8. 8.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  9. 9.Department of Cultural and Behavioral SciencesGeorgia State University Perimeter CollegeDunwoodyUSA
  10. 10.Raffles’ Banded Langur Working GroupWildlife Reserves SingaporeMandaiSingapore

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