The Impact of Digital Divides on Student Mathematics Achievement in Confucian Heritage Cultures: a Critical Examination Using PISA 2012 Data


This study critically examines if digital divides, comprising access to and use of information technology (IT) in two spheres (schools and at home), affect student achievement in Confucian heritage cultures (CHCs). The sample comprised 38,158 students from 1030 schools in seven CHCs who participated in Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012. Markov chain Monte Carlo multiple imputation, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), and latent class analysis (LCA) were employed in the analysis. Results showed that home (but not school) IT use benefited student mathematics achievement, and students with the overall least IT resources were most academically successful. These results indicate the importance of understanding the nuanced effects of digital divides in different contexts.

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Tan, C.Y., Hew, K.F. The Impact of Digital Divides on Student Mathematics Achievement in Confucian Heritage Cultures: a Critical Examination Using PISA 2012 Data. Int J of Sci and Math Educ 17, 1213–1232 (2019).

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  • Confucian heritage cultures
  • Digital divides
  • Information technology
  • Mathematics achievement