Daily Emotional Experiences of a High School Mathematics Teacher in the Classroom: a Qualitative Experience-Sampling Method
Despite the importance of emotions in the professional life of teachers, there is not much research on daily emotions of mathematics teachers beyond general research on mathematics anxiety of mathematics teachers and pre-service teachers in elementary school. Using the theory of cognitive structure of emotions, this qualitative case study research starts filling this gap by pursuing the following goals: (1) identify the daily discrete emotions in classroom of a high school mathematics teacher, (2) identify the situations that trigger those emotions, and (3) identify the appraisal structure that supports those emotions. Data was gathered through audiotaped self-reports in which the participating teacher reported his emotional experiences during 13 mathematics classes and one interview performed after the receipt of all self-reports. Our results show that the teacher participant experienced diverse emotions, such as satisfaction, disappointment, appreciation, happy-for, sorry-for, reproach, and anger. The triggering situations for the cognitive appraisals are about the achievement of the planned activities for the lessons and student learning. The support of the appraisals is the participants’ belief that the “good attitude” of students—students’ “collaboration,” “independence,” and “participation”—is a necessary condition to achieve participant’s goals in class and for the students to learn. Our results are, in general, consistent with the research on emotions of teachers from elementary to high-school levels which shows that students’ behavior in the classroom has an important impact on teachers’ emotional experiences. We propose the hypothesis, for future research, that the emotional experiences of other mathematics teachers in classroom are triggered by the perceived mathematical behavior and the perceived mathematical learning of their students.
KeywordsCognitive appraisal Experience-sampling method Mathematics teachers’ emotions Teachers’ goals
- Becker, E. S., Keller, M. M., Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., & Taxer, J. L. (2015). Antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom: An intraindividual approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(635). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00635.
- Coppola, C., Di Martino, P., Pacelli, T., & Sabena, C. (2012). Primary teachers’ affect: A crucial variable in the teaching of mathematics. Nordic Studies in Matematics Education, 17(3–4), 107–123.Google Scholar
- Di Martino, P., Coppola, C., Mollo, M., Pacelli, T., & Sabena, C. (2013). Pre-service primary teachers’ emotions: The math-redemption phenomenon. In A. M. Lindmeier & A. Heinze (Eds.), Proceedings of the 37th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol. 2, pp. 225–232). Kiel: PME.Google Scholar
- Di Martino, P., & Sabena, C. (2011). Elementary pre-service teachers’ emotions: Shadows from the past to the future. In K. Kislenko (Ed.), Current state of research on mathematical beliefs (Vol. XVI, pp. 89–105). Tallin: Tallinn University.Google Scholar
- Ellsworth, P. C., & Scherer, K. R. (2009). Appraisal processes in emotion. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 572–595). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Frenzel, A. C. (2014). Teacher emotions. In R. Pekrun & L. Linnenbrink-Garcia (Eds.), International handbook of emotions in education (pp. 494–519). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Hannula, M. S., Liljedahl, P., Kaasila, R., & Rösken, B. (2007). Researching relief of mathematics anxiety among pre-service elementary school teachers. In J.-H. Woo, H.-C. Lew, K.-S. P. Park, & D.-Y. Seo (Eds.), Proceedings of 31st Annual Conference for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol. 1, pp. 153–156). Seoul: The Korea Society of Educational Studies in Mathematics.Google Scholar
- Jackson, C., & Leffingwell, R. (1999). The role of instructors in creating math anxiety in students from kindergarten through college. The Mathematics Teacher, 92(7), 583–586.Google Scholar
- Keller, M. M., Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., Pekrun, R., & Hensley, L. (2014). Exploring teacher emotions: A literature review and an experience sampling study. In P. W. Richardson, S. A. Karabenick, & H. M. G. Watt (Eds.), Teacher motivation: Theory and practice (pp. 69–82). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Lazarus, R. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Martínez-Sierra, G., & García-González, M. D. S. (2014). High school students’ emotional experiences in mathematics classes. Research in Mathematics Education, 16(3), 234–250. https://doi.org/10.1080/14794802.2014.895676.
- Martínez-Sierra, G., & García-González, M. del S. (2016). Undergraduate mathematics students’ emotional experiences in Linear Algebra courses. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 91(1), 87–106. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-015-9634-y.
- Martínez-Sierra, G., & García-González, M. del S. (2017). Students’ emotions in the high school mathematics classroom: the appraisals in terms of a structure of goals. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 15(2), 349–369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-015-9698-2.
- Pepin, B., & Roesken-Winter, B. (2015). Introduction. In B. Pepin & B. Roesken-Winter (Eds.), From beliefs to dynamic affect systems in mathematics education (pp. xv–xix). Zürich, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
- Philipp, R. A. (2007). Mathematics teachers’ beliefs and affect. In F. Lester (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 257–315). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
- Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar