Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Millimeter-Wave Printed Dipole Array Antenna Loaded with a Low-Cost Dielectric Lens for High-Gain Applications

  • 56 Accesses

Abstract

In this paper, two different millimeter-wave printed dipole array (PDA) antenna prototypes for high-gain applications are proposed. The antenna prototypes are designed, simulated, fabricated, and experimentally tested. A good agreement between the simulated and measured results is achieved. Calculated results show that those antenna prototypes can operate from 51.5 to 74 GHz with a fractional impedance bandwidth of 35.9%. Due to limitations in the measurement facilities, the antenna return loss is measured up to 65 GHz only. At 60 GHz, the two antenna prototypes have maximum realized peak gain of 14.0 dBi and 23.29 dBi, respectively, with a gain variation of 3 dBi and 1.4 dBi, respectively, across the whole frequency band of interest with stable radiation patterns over the operating band. The proposed PDA antenna prototypes achieve good side lobe suppression, excellent front-to-back ratio in both E- and H-planes and low cross-polarization levels over the entire frequency range.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24

References

  1. 1.

    Yeo, Junho, and Jong-Ig Lee. "Modified series-fed two-dipole-array antenna with reduced size." IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 12 (2013): 214–217.

  2. 2.

    Yeo, Junho, and Jong-Ig Lee. "Bandwidth and gain enhancement of a series-fed two-dipole array antenna using nearby parasitic director." Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 55, no. 11 (2013): 2782–2787.

  3. 3.

    Isbell, D. "Log periodic dipole arrays." IRE transactions on antennas and propagation 8, no. 3 (1960): 260–267.

  4. 4.

    Carrel, Robert L. Analysis and design of the log-periodic dipole antenna. No. TR52. ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH LAB, 1961.

  5. 5.

    Carr, J. "Some variations in log-periodic antenna structures." IRE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 9, no. 2 (1961): 229–230.

  6. 6.

    Mittra, Raj, and K. Jones. "Theoretical Brillouin (κ-β) diagrams for monopole and dipole arrays and their application to log-periodic antennas." IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 12, no. 5 (1964): 533–540.

  7. 7.

    Barbano, N. Waveguide-fed log periodic antennas. No. EDL-M1017. SYLVANIA ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS-WEST MOUNTAIN VIEW CALIF ELECTRONIC DEFENSE LABS, 1967.

  8. 8.

    Wolter, J. H. I. A. I. "Solution of Maxwell’s equations for log-periodic dipole antennas." IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 18, no. 6 (1970): 734–741.

  9. 9.

    Butson, P., and G. Thompson. "A note on the calculation of the gain of log-periodic dipole antennas." IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 24, no. 1 (1976): 105–106.

  10. 10.

    A. B. Constantine, Antenna theory: analysis and design, New York: Wiley-Interscience, 2005.

  11. 11.

    Baek, Yong-Hyun, Le Huu Truong, Sun-Woo Park, Sang-Jin Lee, Yeon-Sik Chae, Eung-Ho Rhee, Hyun-Chang Park, and Jin-Koo Rhee. "94-GHz log-periodic antenna on GaAs substrate using air-bridge structure." IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 8 (2009): 909–911.

  12. 12.

    Zhou, Hongyu, Nathan Adam Sutton, and Dejan S. Filipovic. "Surface micromachined millimeter-wave log-periodic dipole array antennas." IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 60, no. 10 (2012): 4573–4581.

  13. 13.

    Sun, Mei, and Yue Ping Zhang. "100-GHz quasi-Yagi antenna in silicon technology." IEEE electron device letters 28, no. 5 (2007): 455–457.

  14. 14.

    Wheeler, Harold A. "Transmission-line properties of parallel strips separated by a dielectric sheet." IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 13, no. 2 (1965): 172–185.

  15. 15.

    Merli, Francesco, J-F. Zurcher, Angelo Freni, and Anja K. Skrivervik. "Analysis, design and realization of a novel directive ultrawideband antenna." IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 57, no. 11 (2009): 3458–3466.

  16. 16.

    Casula, Giovanni Andrea, Paolo Maxia, Giuseppe Mazzarella, and Giorgio Montisci. "Design of a printed log-periodic dipole array for ultra-wideband applications." Progress In Electromagnetics Research 38 (2013): 15–26.

  17. 17.

    Casula, Giovanni Andrea, Paolo Maxia, Giorgio Montisci, Giuseppe Mazzarella, and Francesco Gaudiomonte. "A printed LPDA fed by a coplanar waveguide for broadband applications." IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 12 (2013): 1232–1235.

  18. 18.

    Zhai, Guohua, Yong Cheng, Qiuyan Yin, Leung Chiu, Shouzheng Zhu, and Jianjun Gao. "Super high gain substrate integrated clamped-mode printed log-periodic dipole array antenna." IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation 61, no. 6 (2013): 3009–3016.

  19. 19.

    Hamid, Mohamad Rijal, Peter S. Hall, and Peter Gardner. "Wideband reconfigurable log periodic patch array." Progress In Electromagnetics Research 34 (2013): 123–138.

  20. 20.

    Haraz, Osama M., Abdel-Razik Sebak, and Saleh A. Alshebeili. "Design of a printed log-periodic dipole array antenna with high gain for millimeter-wave applications." International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering 25, no. 3 (2015): 185–193.

  21. 21.

    Haraz, Osama M., Abdel-Razik Sebak, and Saleh A. Alshebeili. "Performance investigation of V-band PLPDA antenna loaded with a hemispherical dielectric lens for millimeter-wave applications." Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 57, no. 3 (2015): 630–634.

  22. 22.

    Haraz, Osama M., Saleh A. Alshebeili, and Abdel-Razik Sebak. "Low-cost high gain printed log-periodic dipole array antenna with dielectric lenses for V-band applications." IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation 9, no. 6 (2014): 541–552

  23. 23.

    Piksa, Petr, Stanislav Zvanovec, and Petr Cerny. "Elliptic and hyperbolic dielectric lens antennas in mmwaves." Radioengineering 20, no. 1 (2011): 270–275.

  24. 24.

    Cai, Run-nan, Ming-chuan Yang, Xing-qi Zhang, Ming Li, and Xiao-feng Liu. "A novel multi-beam lens antenna for high altitude platform communications." In 2012 IEEE 75th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), pp. 1–5. IEEE, 2012.

  25. 25.

    CST Microwave Studio, Ver. 2019, Framingham, MA, 2019.

  26. 26.

    Ansoft HFSS. ver. 13. Ansys Corporation: Available: www.ansoft.com

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Osama M. Haraz.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Haraz, O.M. Millimeter-Wave Printed Dipole Array Antenna Loaded with a Low-Cost Dielectric Lens for High-Gain Applications. J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 41, 225–244 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10762-019-00654-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Low-cost dielectric lens
  • Spherical lens
  • Millimeter-wave
  • Printed dipole array (PDA) antenna
  • High-gain antennas