Design of Planar Millimeter-Wave Metallic Structures for Wakefield Acceleration

  • Liang ZhangEmail author
  • Wenlong He
  • Steven Jamison
  • Colin G. Whyte
  • Kevin Ronald
  • Alan D. R. Phelps
  • Adrian W. Cross


Linear accelerators operating at millimeter or sub-terahertz frequencies and short pulse duration have the advantages of lower power consumption and high repetition rate. In this paper planar metallic accelerating structures with different modes operating at 210 GHz were designed. A tolerance study was also carried out to determine the sensitivities of the geometric parameters to the wakefield acceleration performance. The generated Wakefield was simulated using the beam parameter of the Compact Linear Advanced Research Accelerator (CLARA) test facility at Daresbury Laboratory. For a 55 MeV single electron bunch with charge of 250 pC and a bunch length of 0.27 mm (0.9 ps), an equivalent acceleration gradient of 20 MV/m was achieved in the simulation. The relatively modest acceleration gradient was limited by the charge in a single bunch. The acceleration gradient could be further improved by using a bunch train which has larger total bunch charge. From the simulation, the acceleration gradient of 100 MV/m can be generated when it is driven by a 10-bunch beam train.


Planar metallic waveguide Wakefield generation THz acceleration Acceleration structure 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Yuri Saveliv of ASTeC and the Cockcroft Institute for the useful discussion on the CLARA test facility at Daresbury Laboratory, UK.


  1. 1.
    R. Wilson, Science 164 (1969), no. 3880, 674.
  2. 2.
    T. Raubenheimer, C. Adolphsen, D. Burke, P. Chen, S. Ecklund, J. Irwin, G. Loew, T. Markiewicz, R. Miller, E. Paterson, N. Phinney, K. Ross, R. Ruth, J. Sheppard, H. Tang, K. Thompson, and P. Wilson, In proceedings particle accelerator conference, vol. 2, pp 698–700, 1995.
  3. 3.
    A. De Roeck, J. Ellis, C. Grojean, S. Heinemeyer, K. Jakobs, G. Weiglein, J. Wells, G. Azuelos, S. Dawson, B. Gripaios, T. Han, J. Hewett, M. Lancaster, C. Mariotti, F. Moortgat, G. Moortgat-Pick, G. Polesello, S. Riemann, M. Schumacher, K. Assamagan, P. Bechtle, M. Carena, G. Chachamis, K. F. Chen, S. De Curtis, K. Desch, M. Dittmar, H. Dreiner, M. Dührssen, B. Foster, M. T. Frandsen, A. Giammanco, R. Godbole, S. Gopalakrishna, P. Govoni, J. Gunion, W. Hollik, W. S. Hou, G. Isidori, A. Juste, J. Kalinowski, A. Korytov, E. Kou, S. Kraml, M. Krawczyk, A. Martin, D. Milstead, V. Morton-Thurtle, K. Moenig, B. Mele, E. Ozcan, M. Pieri, T. Plehn, L. Reina, E. Richter-Was, T. Rizzo, K. Rolbiecki, F. Sannino, M. Schram, J. Smillie, S. Sultansoy, J. Tattersall, P. Uwer, B. Webber, and P. Wienemann, The European Physical Journal C 66 (2010), no. 3, 525.
  4. 4.
    F. V. Hartemann and F. Albert, Technical Report LLNL-TR-416320, 2009.
  5. 5.
    T. Sakurai, H. Ego, T. Inagaki, T. Asaka, D. Suzuki, S. Miura, and Y. Otake, Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 20 (2017), 042003.
  6. 6.
    T. Argyropoulos, N. Catalan-Lasheras, A. Grudiev, G. Mcmonagle, E. Rodriguez-Castro, I. Syrachev, R. Wegner, B. Woolley, W. Wuensch, H. Zha, V. Dolgashev, G. Bowden, A. Haase, T.G. Lucas, M. Volpi, D. Esperante-Pereira, and R. Rajamäki, Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 21 (2018), 061001.
  7. 7.
    S. M. Hooker, Nature Photon. 7 (2013), 775.
  8. 8.
    E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, and R. L. Byer, Vol. 503, 2013. EP.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Jamison et al., In Proceedings, 28th International Linear Accelerator Conference (LINAC16): East Lansing, Michigan, September 25-30, 2016 (2017), p. MOOP09.
  10. 10.
    J. A. Clarke, D. Angal-Kalinin, N. Bliss, R. Buckley, S. Buckley, R. Cash, P. Corlett, L. Cowie, G. Cox, G. P. Diakun, D. J. Dunning, B. D. Fell, A. Gallagher, P. Goudket, A. R. Goulden, D. M. P. Holland, S. P. Jamison, J. K. Jones, A. S. Kalinin, W. Liggins, L. Ma, K. B. Marinov, B. Martlew, P. A. McIntosh, J. W. McKenzie, K. J. Middleman, B. L. Militsyn, A. J. Moss, B. D. Muratori, M. D. Roper, R. Santer, Y. Saveliev, E. Snedden, R. J. Smith, S. L. Smith, M. Surman, T. Thakker, N. R. Thompson, R. Valizadeh, A. E. Wheelhouse, P. H. Williams, R. Bartolini, I. Martin, R. Barlow, A. Kolano, G. Burt, S. Chattopadhyay, D. Newton, A. Wolski, R. B. Appleby, H. L. Owen, M. Serluca, G. Xia, S. Boogert, A. Lyapin, L. Campbell, B. W. J. McNeil, and V. V. Paramonov, Journal of Instrumentation 9 (2014), no. 05, T05001.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. McIntosh et al., In Proceedings, 5th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC 2014): Dresden, Germany, June 15-20, 2014 (2014), p WEPME083.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Dal Forno, V. Dolgashev, G. Bowden, C. Clarke, M. Hogan, D. McCormick, A. Novokhatski, B. O’Shea, B. Spataro, S. Weathersby, and S. G. Tantawi, Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 19 (2016), 111301.
  13. 13.
    M. Dal Forno, V. Dolgashev, G. Bowden, C. Clarke, M. Hogan, D. McCormick, A. Novokhatski, B. Spataro, S. Weathersby, and S. G. Tantawi, Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 19 (2016), 051302.
  14. 14.
    D. Wang, S. Antipov, C. Jing, J. G. Power, M. Conde, E. Wisniewski, W. Liu, J. Qiu, G. Ha, V. Dolgashev, C. Tang, and W. Gai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (2016), 054801.
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    K. L. F. Bane and G. Stupakov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6 (2003), 024401.
  17. 17.
    M. D. Forno, V. Dolgashev, G. Bowden, C. Clarke, M. Hogan, D. McCormick, A. Novokhatski, B. O’Shea, B. Spataro, S. Weathersby, S. G. Tantawi, and Nuclear Instruments, Methods in physics research section A accelerators, spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 864 (2017), 12.
  18. 18.
    F. Gao, M. E. Conde, W. Gai, C. Jing, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J. G. Power, T. Wong, and Z. Yusof, Phys Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11 (2008), 041301.
  19. 19.
    D. M. Pozar, Microwave engineering, 4th ed., Hoboken, Wiley, 2012.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics, SUPAUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowUK
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsUniversity of LancasterLancasterUK
  3. 3.Cockcroft InstituteSci-Tech DaresburyWarringtonUK

Personalised recommendations