Technology, Knowledge and Learning

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 41–63 | Cite as

Designing a Virtual Learning Environment System for Teaching Twenty-First Century Skills to Higher Education Students in ASEAN

  • Jintavee KhlaisangEmail author
  • Noawanit Songkram
Original research


The proliferation of digital media now allows for learning to take place anywhere and anytime. The use of mobile devices and 3D virtual classrooms provides an integrated environment for effective learning. This study aims to examine the necessary factors for developing an effective virtual learning environment (VLE) system and to examine the effectiveness of the VLE system developed to enhance the range of twenty-first century skills of higher education students in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) community. As a part of this study, four hundred higher education instructors completed questionnaires which were analyzed statistically using Exploratory Factor Analysis to determine the core factors which were then incorporated into the development of a VLE system. The system was tested on a sample of 90 volunteer undergraduate students from 5 ASEAN member countries. Data analysis using dependent t test indicated that there was a statistical difference between pre and post self-assessment scores of the twenty-first century skills in learning and innovation at the 0.05 level of significance. The finding and result were consistent with and could be supported by the results of behavior and trace observations and project assignments. In this paper, the 7 elements of the VLE system and 7 steps involved in its development are discussed, in addition to proposals for further implementation.


Virtual learning environment Twenty-first century skills Higher education ASEAN 



This paper was a part of the project funded by the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT) in 2013. The authors would like to express our sincere appreciation to NRCT for their support. Sincere thanks must also go to Chulalongkorn University and the Thailand Cyber University Project who are the supporting institutes. Special thanks also go to all advisors, scholars, and experts for their help and support in developing new knowledge via this project to strengthen the educational technology and communications field.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational Technology and CommunicationsChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

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