, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 2003–2010 | Cite as

Uremic Serum Induces Inflammation in Cultured Human Endothelial Cells and Triggers Vascular Repair Mechanisms

  • Asmahan EloueykEmail author
  • Bilal Osta
  • Rashad Alameldinne
  • Dania Awad
Original Article


Inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients whose vascular endothelium is in direct contact with the uremic toxins found in the blood. These toxins are believed to affect vascular injury and repair process, which is impaired in ESRD patients. The exact mechanisms behind these interactions are not clear. So, we wanted to investigate what happens at the molecular level of endothelial cells when exposed to uremic serum from ESRD patients with diabetes and/or hypertension and its effect on the expression of molecules associated with vascular injury and repair. Cultured human endothelial cells (ECV304) were incubated in the presence of normal or uremic sera from ESRD patients with diabetes and/or hypertension. The expressions of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and stromal cell–derived factor 1 (SDF-1) were investigated in endothelial cells (ECV304) by real-time PCR and ELISA. The expression of MCP-1, VEGF, and SDF-1 was elevated in endothelial cells upon exposure to uremic sera from ESRD patients with diabetes and/or hypertension when compared with cells treated with healthy serum. MCP-1 expression in endothelial cells treated with uremic serum from ESRD patients with hypertension only was significantly increased compared with its expression in other cohorts. Exposure of endothelial cells to uremic serum causes endothelial injury and inflammation characterized by an increase in MCP-1 expression. This injury activates the initiation of vascular repair process in these cells by increasing the expression of VEGF and SDF-1. These molecules can be important biomarkers of chronic kidney disease–associated CVD.


uremia endothelial cells vascular injury vascular repair inflammation 



We would like to thank the Staff working at Orange Nassau Governmental Hospital in Tripoli, North Lebanon, for their appreciated assistance.


This study was funded by the Lebanese University.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee at BAU and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration with its later amendments.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of ScienceBeirut Arab UniversityDebbiehLebanon
  2. 2.Laboratiore de BiotechnologieDoctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese UniversityTripoliLebanon
  3. 3.Orange Nassau Governmental HospitalTripoliLebanon

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