Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Therapeutic Effects of α-Mangostin on Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Rats by Down-regulating Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase
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α-Mangostin (MAN) is a bioactive compound isolated from pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) with significant anti-rheumatic potentials. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats with metabolomics approaches. Therapeutic effects of MAN on CIA were assessed by radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical methods. Metabolic profiles of rats were characterized based on UPLC-MS/MS analysis of urine samples, followed by verification in HFLS-RA cells using a variety of toxicological and biochemical assays. We found that MAN treatment protected joint structures in CIA rats and caused a decrease of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in urine. The levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) were reduced in fibroblast-like synoviocytes by MAN both in vivo and in vitro, which was accompanied with a decline in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) production. Secretion of extracellular NAMPT (eNAMPT) in HFLS-RA cells was also decreased upon MAN treatment, which lagged behind the changes of its intracellular counterpart (iNAMPT). Co-treatment with NMN raised the secretion of eNAMPT and restored the decline of p-p65 and TNF-α induced by MAN in vitro. Sirt1 expression was down-regulated under MAN treatments too. These results suggest that MAN treatment suppressed NAD production by inhibiting iNAMPT expression, which in turn decreased eNAMPT secretion and alleviated NF-κB-mediated inflammations in CIA rats.
KEY WORDSxanthone rheumatoid arthritis NAD metabolism inflammation
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81603388), Research Project on Traditional Chinese medicine of Anhui province (2016zy37), Key Project of Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province for College Scholar (KJ2018A0249), and Project of Construction on Key Discipline of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2012-32).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The animal experimental protocols were approved by Ethical Committee of Yijishan Hospital and strictly in accordance with the guideline for the care and use of laboratory animals (US National Research Council, 2011).
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