Hydrogen-Rich Saline Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 Mice Via the Nrf2-ARE Signaling Pathway
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is associated with demyelination, neurodegeneration, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) is efficacious in preventive and therapeutic applications for many disorders because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we determined the effect of HRS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is a generally accepted model of the immuno-pathogenic mechanisms underlying MS. We found that HRS reduced the severity of EAE in mice and alleviated inflammation and demyelination. Furthermore, treatment with HRS attenuated oxidative stress in EAE mice. Finally, the results of our study suggest that activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway plays a critical role in the protective effects of HRS in EAE mice.
KEY WORDSmultiple sclerosis experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis hydrogen-rich saline oxidative stress nrf2-ARE
We sincerely thank Professor Xuejun Sun from the Second Military Medical University for his help with hydrogen-rich saline preparation.
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions of China (15KJB180018, 18KJB180028) and the Science and Technology Project of Xuzhou City (KC16SH076).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All animal care and experimental procedures were carried out according to the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and were approved by the Bioethics Committee of Xuzhou Medical University.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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