Inflammation

pp 1–12 | Cite as

Salicytamide: a New Anti-inflammatory Designed Drug Candidate

  • Karen Marinho Maciel Guedes
  • Rosivaldo Santos Borges
  • Enéas Andrade Fontes-Júnior
  • Andressa Santa Brigida Silva
  • Luanna Melo Pereira Fernandes
  • Sabrina Carvalho Cartágenes
  • Ana Carla Godinho Pinto
  • Mallone Lopes Silva
  • Luana Melo Diogo Queiroz
  • José Luís Fernandes Vieira
  • Pergentino José Cunha Sousa
  • Cristiane Socorro Ferraz Maia
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
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Abstract

Salicytamide is a new drug developed through molecular modelling and rational drug design by the molecular association of paracetamol and salicylic acid. This study was conducted to assess the acute oral toxicity, antinociceptive, and antioedematogenic properties of salicytamide. Acute toxicity was based on the OECD 423 guidelines. Antinociceptive properties were investigated using the writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in Swiss mice. Antioedematogenic properties were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model and croton oil-induced dermatitis in Wistar rats. Salicytamide did not promote behavioural changes or animal deaths during acute oral toxicity evaluation. Furthermore, salicytamide exhibited peripheral antinociceptive activity as evidenced by the reduction in writhing behaviour (ED50 = 4.95 mg/kg) and licking time in the formalin test’s inflammatory phase. Also, salicytamide elicited central antinociceptive activity on both hot plate test and formalin test’s neurogenic phase. Additionally, salicytamide was effective in reducing carrageenan or croton oil-induced oedema formation. Overall, we have shown that salicytamide, proposed here as a new NSAID candidate, did not induce oral acute toxicity and elicited both peripheral antinociceptive effects (about 10–25 times more potent than its precursors in the writhing test) and antioedematogenic properties. Salicytamide also presented central antinociceptive activity, which seems to be mediated through opioid-independent mechanisms. These findings reveal salicytamide as a promising antinociceptive/antioedematogenic drug candidate.

KEY WORDS

antinociception antioedematogenic paracetamol acetylsalicylic acid salicytamide 

Notes

Acknowledgments

KMMG and SCC were supported by a Brazilian Government/Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) fellowship. RSB is supported by a research fellowship from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee on Experimental Animals of the Federal University of Pará under license number FAR 001-10-CEPAE/UFPA. The number of animals and the intensity of noxious stimuli were standardized according to the ethical guidelines for the investigation of experimental pain in conscious animals (Zimmermann, 1983) and the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines [18].

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Marinho Maciel Guedes
    • 1
  • Rosivaldo Santos Borges
    • 2
  • Enéas Andrade Fontes-Júnior
    • 1
    • 3
  • Andressa Santa Brigida Silva
    • 1
  • Luanna Melo Pereira Fernandes
    • 3
  • Sabrina Carvalho Cartágenes
    • 3
  • Ana Carla Godinho Pinto
    • 4
  • Mallone Lopes Silva
    • 3
  • Luana Melo Diogo Queiroz
    • 1
  • José Luís Fernandes Vieira
    • 1
  • Pergentino José Cunha Sousa
    • 3
  • Cristiane Socorro Ferraz Maia
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Health Science InstituteFederal University of ParáBelemBrazil
  2. 2.Pharmaceutic Chemical Laboratory, Health Science InstituteFederal University of ParáBelemBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratory of Inflammation and Behaviour Pharmacology, Health Science InstituteFederal University of ParáBelemBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratory of Toxicology, Health Science InstituteFederal University of ParáBelemBrazil

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