Biomanipulating streams: a supplementary tool in lake restoration
Removal of cyprinid fish is a widely used biomanipulation tool to transform turbid shallow eutrophic lakes in north temperate regions into a clear water state. We here evaluate the removal of cyprinids from streams as a supplement to lake fishing. Since cyprinids often aggregate in high densities in lake inlet/outlet streams during winter migration, removal of fish in this space-confined habitat may be cost-efficient as compared to fish removal in the lake habitat. In two consecutive years, we annually removed up to 35% of the dominant cyprinids from an inlet stream to a lake and argue that this could easily be increased with a more targeted fishing effort. Concurrently, we monitored species- and length-specific variation in migration propensity, to explore how this relates to efficient fish removal. Smaller planktivores generally had a much higher migratory propensity than larger benthivores. Hence, stream fishing specifically targets species and size groups that are less efficiently controlled with traditional lake fishing methods. As a rule of thumb, stream fishing is most efficient when water temperature is 2–6°C. Prior to implementing fish removals from streams, the potential evolutionary consequences of the targeted removal of migratory phenotypes should be considered.
KeywordsFish removal Cost-effective Cyprinid fishes Migration Evolutionary consequences
This project was financially supported by Danish National Fishing License Funds. We thank the local landowners at Lake Søgård and technicians and students from DTU Aqua who helped to tag fish and remove cyprinid fish species from the inlet stream of Lake Søgård. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments early in the review process.
- Avery, E. L., 1985. Sexual maturity and fecundity of brown trout in central and northern Wisconsin streams. Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin. Technical Bulletin No. 154.Google Scholar
- Bernes, C., S. R. Carpenter, A. Gårdmark, P. Larsson, L. Persson, C. Skov, J. D. M. Speed & E. Van Donk, 2015. What is the influence of a reduction of planktivorous and benthivorous fish on water quality in temperate eutrophic lakes?. A systematic review. Environmental Evidence 4(1): 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Grünfeld, S., 2003. Nutrients, nutrient loading and biology of Lake Søgård 2002. Report from the County of Vejle, Denmark (ISBN:87-7750-789-4) (in Danish). p. 73Google Scholar
- Hansson, L. A., H. Annadotter, E. Bergman, S. F. Hamrin, E. Jeppesen, T. Kairesalo, E. Luokkanen, P. A. Nilsson, M. Søndergaard & J. Strand, 1998. Biomanipulation as an application of food-chain theory: constraints, synthesis, and recommendations for temperate lakes. Ecosystems 1: 558–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moss, B., D. Stephen, C. Alvarez, E. Becares, W. van de Bund, E. van Donk, E. de Eyto, T. Feldmann, C. Fernández-Aláez, M. Fernández-Aláez, R. J. M. Franken, F. García-Criado, E. Gross, M. Gyllstrom, L.-A. Hansson, K. Irvine, A. Järvalt, J.-P. Jenssen, E. Jeppesen, T. Kairesalo, R. Kornijow, T. Krause, H. Künnap, A. Laas, E. Lill, H. Luup, M. R. Miracle, P. Nõges, T. Nõges, M. Nykannen, I. Ott, E. T. H. M. Peeters, G. Phillips, S. Romo, J. Salujõe, M. Scheffer, K. Siewertsen, C. Tesch, H. Timm, L. Tuvikene, I. Tonno, K. Vakilainnen & T. Virro, 2002. The determination of ecological quality in shallow lakes - a tested expert system (ECOFRAME) for implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. Aquatic Conservation 13: 507–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olin, M., J. Tiainen, M. Rask, M. Vinni, K. Nyberg & H. Lehtonen, 2017. Effects of nonselective and size-selective fishing on perch populations in a small lake. Boreal Environment Research 22: 137–155.Google Scholar
- Ricker, W. E., 1975. Computation and Interpretation of Biological Statistics of Fish Populations. Bulletin of the fisheries research board of Canada 191: 1–382.Google Scholar
- Scheffer, M., 1998. The Ecology of Shallow Lakes. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
- Shapiro, J., 1978. The need for more biology in lake restoration, p. 161-167. In Lake restoration. U.S. EPA-440/5-79-001.Google Scholar
- Søndergaard, M., L. Liboriussen, E. Jeppesen, A. R. Pedersen, C. Skov, H. Skovgaard, I. Christensen, M. Bramm, S. Marsbøl & L. Pedersen, 2007b. Lake restoration in Denmark. Vand og Jord. 4: 124–128. (In Danish).Google Scholar
- Tiainen, J. M., M. Olin, H. Lehtonen, K. Nyberg & J. Ruuhijärvi, 2017. The capability of harvestable slot-length limit regulation in conserving large and old northern pike (Esox lucius). Boreal Environment Research 22: 169–186.Google Scholar