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Breakdown rates and associated nutrient cycling vary between novel crop-derived and natural riparian detritus in aquatic agroecosystems

  • Jason M. Taylor
  • Richard E. LizotteJr.
  • Sam TestaIII
Primary Research Paper

Abstract

Freshwater ecosystem function within agricultural landscapes may be altered by differences in processing of organic matter (OM) detritus entering freshwater habitats. We compared litter breakdown rates between crop residues; maize, cotton and soybean, and native riparian species: willow oak, American sycamore and cottonwood from inundated remnant river meander channels located within the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB). Litter breakdown varied among the six species with the highest and lowest breakdown rates represented by crop (\(\bar{X}\) k day−1 = 0.007–0.011) and riparian species (\(\bar{X}\) k day−1 = 0.003–0.005), respectively. OM nutrient concentration varied widely across the six species. OM C:N ratios declined with time for all species except cotton. Temporal patterns in C:P ratios varied among crop residues but initially increased before declining for all three riparian species. Riparian OM breakdown rates were more negatively related to increasing C:N ratios of OM at the end of the study compared to crop species. Historic shifts in landscape-scale OM sources from diverse bottomland tree assemblages to crop residues has likely altered LMRB bayou and oxbow ecosystems by shifting both the timing and lability of OM pulses and decreasing long-term storage of OM, an important habitat and food resource for aquatic communities.

Keywords

Oxbow lake Bayou Agriculture Agroecosystem Breakdown Crop residue Riparian 

Notes

Acknowledgements

US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service-Current Research Information System Funds supported this work. Katelynn Dillard provided significant field and laboratory assistance collecting and processing litter bags. John Massey, Terry Welch, and Duane Shaw conducted routine water-quality collections at field sites. Lisa Brooks and James Hill conducted all nutrient and water-quality laboratory analyses. Lindsey Yasarer and Jeff Back reviewed an earlier version of this manuscript. Mention of any trade names or commercial products in this article is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA. The USDA is an equal opportunity employer and provider.

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply  2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit, National Sedimentation LaboratoryUnited States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceOxfordUSA

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