Human Ecology

, Volume 47, Issue 5, pp 705–715 | Cite as

Surf as a Driver for Sustainable Coastal Preservation – an Application of the Contingent Valuation Method in Portugal

  • Pedro Ramos
  • Lígia M. Costa PintoEmail author
  • Cristina Chaves
  • Nuno Formigo


Ecosystem services provided by coastal areas depend on natural conditions and anthropogenic actions. The shape, quality, and safety of the waves in particular depend on factors such as coastal erosion, coastal defense constructions, and urbanization, which in addition to environmental factors may determine the choice of a given area for surfing. We assess surfers’ willingness to pay to protect the environment in specific typologies of beaches (urban and non-urban) in Portugal using the contingent valuation method. Results show that environmental attributes, such as specific wave characteristics, and socio-demographic characteristics are important determinants of willingness to pay. Moreover, surfers’ willingness to pay is significantly lower for urban beaches.


Coastal preservation Ecosystem services Surf Contingent valuation method Willingness to pay Portugal 


Funding Information

The Research was developed with financial support from FCT – Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology within the project «UID/ECO/03182/2019».

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Participants in the survey were voluntary and their participation was anonymous, with tacit consent.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10745_2019_106_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (286 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 285 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Ramos
    • 1
  • Lígia M. Costa Pinto
    • 2
    Email author
  • Cristina Chaves
    • 1
  • Nuno Formigo
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of EconomicsUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.NIPE, Department of EconomicsUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  3. 3.Faculty of SciencesUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

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