Integrating Modern Vegetation and Ethnographic Data to Understand Dietary Choices in the Past: the Case of the Southern Paiute, Utah
- 65 Downloads
Ethnographic information on dietary plants can be cast into an ecological framework by using vegetation sampling techniques. Lists of ethnobotanical species become the basis of a dietary inventory that applies to a regional assemblage of vegetation types in a landscape associated with an archaeological site. But such lists are usually derived from many sources often without biogeographic or temporal reference. In effect, the dietary inventory represents potential food plants that may ultimately be found in archaeological deposits. The dietary palette, however, is composed of plant species that actually occur within the greater landscape of an archaeological site and that may or may not be known from the ethnographic record. Vegetation sampling provides a quantitative assessment of the dietary palette in the local ecosystem by using standard metrics, such as plant cover, basal area, density, and even productivity. By comparing vegetation data to the dietary inventory and archaeobotanical record, general patterns of foraging behavior as predicted by behavioral ecology are verified. This study of the Southern Paiute in south-central Utah also compares the plant species composition of modern and ancient landscapes, emphasizing a lack of correspondence between the dietary inventory and the dietary palette, as well as with the archaeobotanical record. Our example is from North Creek Shelter, a well-stratified archaeological site on the Colorado Plateau.
KeywordsDietary plant inventories Dietary palette Natural vegetation Foraging behavior Site catchment analysis Ethnobotany Southern Paiute North Creek Shelter Colorado Plateau Utah
We thank Donald Grayson, David Rhode, Joel Janetski and the University of Utah Archaeology Center Lab group for their insightful comments and edits to earlier versions of this manuscript. We also thank Tom Jones for his assistance in the field in July 2011. And finally we are grateful to Joette-Marie Rex and her family for giving us access to her property (North Creek Shelter) to conduct vegetation sampling, and to Terry Tolbert of the USDI Bureau of Land Management, Grand Staircase Escalante National Monument, for assistance rendered.
This research was supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant (#1262835) awarded to LAL in 2012.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Adams, K. R., and Reeder, T. (2009). Catchment analysis—a quantitative evaluation of wild plant food potential surrounding three Pueblo I settlement clusters. In Potter, J. M (ed) Animas-La Plata Project, Vol. XIII—Special Studies. SWCA Anthropological Research Paper Number 10, Phoenix, AZ., pp 249–295.Google Scholar
- Barbour, M. G., Burke, J. H., Gilliam, F. S., and Schwartz, M. W. (1998). Terrestrial Plant Ecology, 3rd edn., Benjamin Cummings, Menlo Park.Google Scholar
- Fowler, C. S. (1986). Subsistence. In D’Azevedo, W. L. (ed.), Handbook of North American Indians vol 11, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, pp. 64–97.Google Scholar
- Fowler, C. S. (2000). “We live by them”: Native knowledge of biodiversity in the Great Basin of western North America. In Minnis, P. E., and Elisens, W. J. (eds.), Biodiversity and Native North America, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, pp. 99–132.Google Scholar
- Hayden, B. (1981). Subsistence and ecological adaptations of modern hunter/gatherers. In Harding, R. S. O., and Teleki, G. (eds.), Omniverous Primates: Gathering and Hunting in Human Evolution, Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 344–421.Google Scholar
- Holmgren, N. H., Holmgren, P. K., Reveal, J. L. (2012). Intermountain flora: vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Volume Two, Part A Subclasses Magnoliidae-Caryophyllidae. The New York Botanic Garden Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Kelly, I. T. (1964). Southern Paiute Ethnography. University of Utah Anthropological Paper 69. University of Utah, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
- Louderback, L. A. (2014) The Ecology of Human Diets during the Holocene at North Creek Shelter, Utah. Unpublished dissertation, University of Washington. https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/25980.
- Mueller-Dombois, D., and Ellenberg, H. (1974). Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
- Nelson, L. (1952). The Mormon Village: A Pattern of Technique and Land Settlement, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
- Pavlik, B. M. (2008). The California Deserts: An Ecological Rediscovery, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
- Randall, D. C. (1972). An analysis of some desert shrub vegetation of Saline Valley, California. Dissertation, University of California Davis.Google Scholar
- Rhode, D. (2008). Dietary plant use by middle Holocene foragers in the Bonneville Basin, western North America. Before Farming, 3(2): 1-17.Google Scholar
- Roundy, J. C. (2005). Advised Them to Call the Place Escalante, Art City Publishing, Springville.Google Scholar
- Vasek, F. C., and Barbour, M. G. (1977). Mojave desert shrub vegetation. In Barbour, M. G., and Major, J. (eds.), Terrestrial Vegetation of California, Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 835–867.Google Scholar
- Welsh, S. L., Atwood, N. D., Goodrich, S., and Higgins, L. C. (2015). A Utah Flora. In Monte, L. (ed.), Bean Life Science Museum, 4th edn., Brigham Young University, Provo.Google Scholar
- West, N. E., and Young, J. A. (2000). Intermountain valleys and lower mountain slopes. In Barbour, M. G., and Billings, W. D. (eds.), North American Terrestrial Vegetation, University of Cambridge, UK, pp. 255–284.Google Scholar
- Whittaker, R. H. and Niering, W. A. (1964). Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona I. Ecological Classification and Distribution of Species. 3: 9–34.Google Scholar
- Woolsey, N. G. (1964). The Escalante Story, Art City Publishing Company, Springville, UT.Google Scholar