Hyperuricemia: a novel old disorder—relationship and potential mechanisms in heart failure

  • Claudio BorghiEmail author
  • Alberto Palazzuoli
  • Matteo Landolfo
  • Eugenio Cosentino


Uric acid, the metabolic mediator of gout and urate renal stones, is associated with increased cardiovascular risk burden. Hyperuricemia is an old emerging metabolic disorder, and interaction among uric acid and cardiovascular diseases has been clearly described. Several illness including hypertension, myocardial infarction, metabolic syndrome, and heart failure, are related with uric acid levels increase. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology of hyperuricemia and describe the biological plausibility for this metabolite to participate in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. In particular, we will focus on the implications of hyperuricemia in the onset and progression of heart failure, paying special attention to the pathophysiology and the possible clinical implications. We will conclude by discussing the effects of lowering plasma uric acid concentration on the prognosis of heart failure by reviewing most of available data on the different classes of drugs directly or indirectly involved in the hyperuricemia management.


Uric acid Xanthine oxidase Cardiovascular diseases Heart failure 



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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical and Surgical SciencesUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineOspedale Policlinico S.Orsola-MalpighiBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Cardiology Unit, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of SienaSienaItaly

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