Trends in the prevalence of malignancy among patients admitted with acute heart failure and associated outcomes: a nationwide population-based study
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Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA, and cardiovascular disease is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors. Cancer survivors share common risk factors for cardiovascular disease with non-cancer patients. With improved survival, cancer patients become susceptible to treatment-related toxicity often involving the heart. The impact of concurrent malignancy on outcomes particularly among heart failure patients is an area of active research. We studied the trends in the prevalence of a concurrent diagnosis of breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancer among admissions for acute heart failure and the associated trends for in-hospital mortality. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who were admitted with a primary diagnosis of “congestive heart failure” (CCS codes 99 and 108) from years 2003 to 2014 were included. We analyzed the rate of admission and in-hospital mortality among patients who had a concurrent diagnosis for either lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer (among females), or prostate cancer (among males). We performed a multivariate analysis to assess the role of a concurrent diagnosis of any cancer in predicting in-hospital mortality among HF admissions. From 2003 to 2014 across over 12 million HF admissions, ≈ 7% had a concurrent diagnosis of either lung, breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer. The prevalence was highest for breast cancer (2.3%) followed by prostate cancer (2.1%) and colorectal cancer (1.5%) and lowest with lung cancer (1.1%). The prevalence of cancer increased over the duration of study among all four cancer types with the largest increase in prevalence of breast cancer. Baseline comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, smoking, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease increased over time among patients with and without cancer. In-hospital mortality was higher among those with a diagnosis of lung cancer (5.9%) followed by colorectal cancer (4.0%), prostate cancer (3.5%), no diagnosis of cancer (3.3%), and breast cancer (3.2%). In-hospital mortality declined across HF admissions with and without a cancer diagnosis from 2003 to 2014. Decline in such mortality among heart failure was highest for patients with lung cancer (8.1 to 4.6% from 2003 to 2014; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that a concurrent diagnosis of cancer was associated with a marginally lower hospital mortality compared with controls (adjusted odds ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.94–0.96; p < 0.001). Among HF admissions, the prevalence of a concurrent cancer diagnosis increased over time for breast, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer. Baseline in-hospital mortality was higher among HF admissions with either lung cancer, colorectal cancer, or prostate cancer and lower with breast cancer compared with controls without a cancer diagnosis. Adjusted analysis revealed no evidence for higher hospital mortality among HF admissions with any accompanying cancer diagnosis.
KeywordsCardiooncology Cardiotoxicity Heart failure Inpatient mortality Cancer Malignancy
The authors are solely responsible for the study design, conduct and analyses, drafting, and editing of the manuscript and its final contents. All authors had access to the data and a role in writing the manuscript.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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