Heart Failure Reviews

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 439–459 | Cite as

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: an updated review on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment

  • George Makavos
  • Chris Κairis
  • Maria-Eirini Tselegkidi
  • Theodoros Karamitsos
  • Angelos G. Rigopoulos
  • Michel Noutsias
  • Ignatios IkonomidisEmail author


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) represents a phenotype of left ventricular hypertrophy unexplained by abnormal loading conditions. The definition is based on clinical criteria; however, there are numerous underlying etiologic factors. The MOGE(S) classification provides a standardized approach for multimodal characterization of HCM. HCM is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and especially the assessment of the risk of sudden cardiac death is of paramount importance. In this review, we summarize essential knowledge and recently published data on clinical presentation, diagnosis, genetic analyses, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options that are necessary for understanding and management of HCM.


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Etiology Diagnosis Treatment 



Alcohol septal ablation


Cardiac magnetic resonance


Computed tomography


Coronary artery disease


Extracellular volume


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy


Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy


Left atrial


Late gadolinium enhancement


Left ventricular


Left ventricular ejection fraction


Left ventricular outflow tract


Systolic anterior motion


Tissue Doppler imaging


Transesophageal echocardiography


Compliance with ethical standards


Michel Noutsias has received grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through the Sonderforschungsbereich Transregio 19 “Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy” (SFB TR19) (TP B2) and from the University Hospital Giessen and Marburg Foundation Grant “T cell functionality” (UKGM 10/2009). Michel Noutsias has been consultant to the IKDT (Institute for Cardiac Diagnosis and Therapy GmbH, Berlin) in 2004–2008, and has received honoraria for presentations and/or participated in advisory boards from Abiomed, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Fresenius, Miltenyi Biotech, Novartis, Pfizer, and Zoll.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Makavos
    • 1
  • Chris Κairis
    • 1
  • Maria-Eirini Tselegkidi
    • 2
  • Theodoros Karamitsos
    • 3
  • Angelos G. Rigopoulos
    • 4
  • Michel Noutsias
    • 4
  • Ignatios Ikonomidis
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.2nd Cardiology Department, National and Kapodistrian University of AthensAttikon HospitalHaidariGreece
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Therapeutics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens“Alexandra” HospitalAthensGreece
  3. 3.1st Department of Cardiology, Aristotle University of ThessalonikiAHEPA HospitalThessalonikiGreece
  4. 4.Mid-German Heart Center, Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Cardiology, Angiology and Intensive Medical Care, University Hospital HalleMartin-Luther-University Halle-WittenbergHalle (Saale)Germany

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