Heart Failure Reviews

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 601–615 | Cite as

Experimental models of cardiac physiology and pathology

  • Jae Gyun Oh
  • Changwon Kho
  • Roger J. Hajjar
  • Kiyotake IshikawaEmail author


Experimental models of cardiac disease play a key role in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and developing new therapies. The features of the experimental models should reflect the clinical phenotype, which can have a wide spectrum of underlying mechanisms. We review characteristics of commonly used experimental models of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology in all translational steps including in vitro, small animal, and large animal models. Understanding their characteristics and relevance to clinical disease is the key for successful translation to effective therapies.


Primary cardiomyocytes Neonatal cardiomyocytes Ischemic Non-ischemic Pressure overload Volume overload 


Funding information

This work is supported by AHA-SDG 17SDG33410873 (K.I.), and AHA 17POST33410877 (J.G.O.), NIH R01 HL139963 (K.I.), AHA-18TPA34170460 (C.K.), R00 HL116645 (C.K.), R01 HL119046, R01 HL117505, R01 HL128099, R01 HL129814, R01HL131404, & T32 HL007824 (R. J. H.), and a Transatlantic Leducq Foundation grant.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Icahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Cardiovascular Research CenterIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA

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