Advertisement

Journal of the History of Biology

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 391–431 | Cite as

Subscribing to Specimens, Cataloging Subscribed Specimens, and Assembling the First Phytogeographical Survey in the United States

  • Kuang-Chi HungEmail author
Original Research

Abstract

Throughout the late 1840s and the early 1850s, Harvard botanist Asa Gray (1810–1888) and his close friend George Engelmann (1809–1884) of St. Louis engaged themselves with recruiting men who sought to make a living by natural history collecting, sending these men into the field, searching for institutions and individuals who would subscribe to incoming collections, compiling catalogs, and collecting subscription fees. Although several botanists have noted Gray and Engelmann’s bold experiment as having introduced America to a mode by which European naturalists had devised to organize scientific expeditions, historians of science have not taken the “subscription mode” seriously. I argue that it was specifically by undertaking the labor of cataloging species and charging subscription fees for the cataloged species that Gray established himself as a metropolitan botanist. One crucial consequence of Gray’s rising profile was that he acquired sufficient “cataloging power” to secure his status as an authoritative cataloger of species, and as a kind of “mint” or “storehouse” (McOuat in Br J Hist Sci 34(1):1–28, 2001a) who produced well-pruned lists of American species to enable transactions between American and European botanists. But this essay is not focused on the Europeanization of American taxonomy. Drawing on work by scholars who place emphasis on how new forms of knowledge get produced when knowledge travels, my focus here is the evolution of the subscription mode when Gray and Engelmann adapted it to American natural history. My conclusion examines what historian of science Vanessa Heggie (Isis 105(2):318–334, 2014) identifies as the “danger of category dominance” in today’s historiography of science and shows how a kind of “assemblage thinking” may help historians cope with this danger.

Keywords

Botany Biogeography Asa Gray George Engelmann Subscription Scientific Survey Assemblage 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This essay is based on my unpublished doctoral dissertation entitled “Finding Patterns in Nature: Asa Gray’s Plant Geography and Collecting Networks (1830s–1860s),” submitted to the Department of the History of Science at Harvard University in 2013. In the course of turning several chapters of my dissertation into a journal article, I am deeply indebted to many colleagues and friends across the United States and Taiwan. I would especially like to thank Janet Browne, Shigehisa Kuriyama, Donald Pfister, Henrietta Harrison, Judith Warnement, Lisa DeCesare, David Boufford, Pamela M. Henson, and Shang-jen Li. I also want to thank the D. Kim Foundation for supporting my postdoctoral study at the Smithsonian Institution and the Needham Research Institute. Thanks also go to anonymous referees and editors of Journal of the History of Biology for their valuable comments on the earlier drafts. The completion of the work was financially supported by the NTU Research Center for Future Earth from the Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan (NTU-107L901004).

References

Manuscripts and Archives

  1. Asa Gray Papers, 1838–1887 (Mss.B.G78), American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Google Scholar
  2. Asa Gray (1810–1888) Papers, Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Asa Gray Papers, 1840–1859 (MSS84489), Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Charles Wilkins Short Correspondence, 1813–1867 (Mss.B.Sh81), American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Correspondence of Moses Ashley Curtis, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.Google Scholar
  6. Historic Letters, Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.Google Scholar

Printed Works

  1. Adelman, J. 2012. An Insight into Commercial Natural History: Richard Glennon, William Hinchy and the Nineteenth-Century Trade in Giant Irish Deer Remains. Archives of Natural History 39 (1): 16–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, D.E. 1994. The Naturalist in Britain: A Social History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Andersen, C., J. Bek-Thomsen, and P.C. Kjærgaard. 2012. The Money Trail: A New Historiography for Networks, Patronage, and Scientific Careers. Isis 103 (2): 310–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Appel, T.A. 1992. A Scientific Career in the Age of Character: Jeffries Wyman and Natural History at Harvard. In Science at Harvard: Historical Perspectives, ed. C.A. Elliott and M.W. Rossiter, 96–120. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Armstrong, A.W. 2004. John Bartram and Peter Collinson: A Correspondence of Science and Friendship. In American Curious Botanist: A Tercentennial Reappraisal of John Bartram, 1699–1777, ed. N.E. Hoffmann and J.C. Van Horne, 23–42. Philadelphia, PA: The American Philosophical Society.Google Scholar
  6. Baird, I. 2015. Translocal Assemblages and the Circulation of the Concept of “Indigenous Peoples” in Laos. Political Geography 46: 54–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrow Jr., M.V. 2000. The Specimen Dealer: Entrepreneurial Natural History in America’s Gilded Age. Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3): 493–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barton, R. 2003. “Man of Science”: Language, Identity and Professionalization in the Mid-Victorian Scientific Community. History of Science 41 (1): 73–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bellon, R. 2001. Joseph Dalton Hooker’s Ideals for a Professional Man of Science. Journal of the History of Biology 34 (1): 51–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bellon, R. 2006. Joseph Hooker Takes a “Fixed Post”: Transmutation and the “Present Unsatisfactory State of Systematic Botany”, 1844–1860. Journal of the History of Biology 39 (1): 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berkeley, E., and D.S. Berkeley (eds.). 1992. The Correspondence of John Bartram, 1734–1777. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  12. Blankinship, J.W. 1907. Plantae Lindheimerianae, Part III. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boewe, C. (ed.). 2005. A C. S. Rafinesque Anthology. Jefferson, IA: McFarland.Google Scholar
  14. Bonneuil, C. 2002. The Manufacture of Species: Kew Gardens, the Empire and the Standardisation of Taxonomic Practices in Late 19th Century Botany. In Instruments, Travel and Science: Itineraries of Precision the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Century, ed. M.-N. Bourguet, C. Licoppe, and H.O. Sibum, 189–215. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Brandon-Jones, C. 1997. Edward Blyth, Charles Darwin, and the Animal Trade in Nineteenth-Century India and Britain. Journal of the History of Biology 30 (2): 145–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Browne, J.E. 2002. Charles Darwin: The Power of Place. New York, NY: Alfred Knopf.Google Scholar
  17. Browne, J.E. 2010. Asa Gray and Charles Darwin: Corresponding Naturalists. Harvard Papers in Botany 15 (2): 209–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Camerini, J.R. 1996. Wallace in the Field. Osiris 11 (1): 44–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Canby, W.M. 1885. An Autobiography and Some Reminiscences of the Late August Fendler. I. Botanical Gazette 10 (6): 285–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carey, J. 1841. Notice of a Flora of North America. The American Journal of Science and Arts 41 (2): 275–283.Google Scholar
  21. Coker, W.C. 1941. Letters from the Collection of Dr. Charles Wilkins Short. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 57 (1): 98–168.Google Scholar
  22. De Candolle, A.-P. 1862. Mémoires et souvenirs de Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle: écrits par lui-meme et publiées par son fils. Geneva: J. Cherbuliez.Google Scholar
  23. Desmond, A. 2001. Redefining the X Axis: “Professionals”, “Amateurs” and the Making of Mid-Victorian Biology—A Progress Report. Journal of the History of Biology 34 (1): 3–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Desmond, A., and J. Moore. 2009. Darwin’s Sacred Cause: How a Hatred of Slavery Shaped Darwin’s Views on Human Evolution. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
  25. Dupree, A.H. 1952. Thomas Nuttall’s Controversy with Asa Gray. Rhodora 54 (648): 293–303.Google Scholar
  26. Dupree, A.H. 1959. Asa Gray. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Endersby, J. 2001. “From Having No Herbarium”: Local Knowledge vs. Metropolitan Expertise: Joseph Hooker’s Australasian Correspondence with William Colenso and Ronald Gunn. Pacific Science 55 (4): 343–358.Google Scholar
  28. Endersby, J. 2008. Imperial Nature: Joseph Hooker and the Practices of Victorian Science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  29. Endersby, J. 2009. “The Vagaries of a Rafinesque”: Imagining and Classifying American Nature. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (3): 168–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Endersby, J. 2011. A Life More Ordinary: The Dull Life but Interesting Times of Joseph Dalton Hooker. Journal of the History of Biology 44 (4): 611–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Engelmann, G. 1844. Catalogue of a Collection of Plants Made in Illinois and Missouri, by Charles A. Geyer; with Critical Remarks, &c. The American Journal of Science and Arts 46 (1): 94–104.Google Scholar
  32. Engelmann, G., and A. Gray. 1845. Plantae Lindheimerianae: An Enumeration of the Plants Collected in Texas, and Distributed to Subscribers, by F. Lindheimer, with Remarks, and Descriptions of New Species, &c. Boston Journal of Natural History, Containing Papers and Communications 5 (2): 210–264.Google Scholar
  33. Golinski, J. 2016. The Experimental Self: Humphry Davy and the Making of a Man of Science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gould, A.A. 1843. Notice of Some Works, Recently Published, on the Nomenclature of Zoology. The American Journal of Science and Arts 45 (1): 1–12.Google Scholar
  35. Goyne, M.A. (ed.). 1991. A Life Among the Texas Flora: Ferdinand Lindheimer’s Letters to George Engelmann. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Gray, A. 1836. Elements of Botany. New York, NY: G. & C. Carvill & Co.Google Scholar
  37. Gray, A. 1841a. Notices of European Herbaria. The American Journal of Science and Arts 40 (1): 1–18.Google Scholar
  38. Gray, A. 1841b. Notice of the Botanical Writings of the Late C. S. Rafinesque. The American Journal of Science and Arts 40 (2): 221–241.Google Scholar
  39. Gray, A. 1843. Notice of Botanical Collections. The American Journal of Science and Arts 45 (1): 225–227.Google Scholar
  40. Gray, A. 1846. Explanations:—A Sequel to Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. The North American Review 62 (131): 465–508.Google Scholar
  41. Gray, A. 1847. Nomenclator Zoologicus, continens Nomina Systematica Generum Animalium, tam viventium quam fossilium, etc.; Auctore L. Agassiz. Fasc. 1–10, (Soleure, 1842–46,) 4to. The American Journal of Science and Arts. 2nd Series 3 (8): 302–309.Google Scholar
  42. Gray, A. 1849. Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae: An Account of a Collection of Plants Made Chiefly in the Vicinity of Santa Fé, New Mexico, by Augustus Fendler; with Descriptions of the New Species, Critical Remarks, and Characters of Other Undescribed or Little Known Plants from Surrounding Regions. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. (New Series) 4. Part 1: 1–116.Google Scholar
  43. Gray, A. 1850. Plantae Lindheimerianae, Part II: An Account of a Collection of Plants Made by F. Lindheimer in the Western Part of Texas, in the Year 1845–6, and 1847–8, with Critical Remarks, Descriptions of New Species, &c. Boston Journal of Natural History 6 (2): 141–240.Google Scholar
  44. Gray, A. 1852. Plantae Wrightianae Texano-Neo-Mexicano: An Account of a Collection of Plants made by Charles Wright, A. M., in an Expedition from Texas to New Mexico, in the Summer and Autumn of 1849, with Critical Notices and Characters of Other New or Interesting Plants from Adjacent Regions, &c. Part 1. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  45. Gray, A. 1853. Plantae Wrightianae Texano-Neo-Mexicano: Part II. An Account of a Collection of Plants Made by Charles Wright, A.M., in Western Texas, New Mexico, and Sonora, in the Years 1851 and 1852. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  46. Gray, A. 1854. Introductory Essay, in Dr. Hooker’s Flora of New Zealand: Vol. 1. The American Journal of Science and Arts (2nd Series) 17 (50): 241–252; 17 (51): 334–350.Google Scholar
  47. Gray, A. 1859a. The Botany of the Mexican Boundary. The American Journal of Science and Arts (2nd Series) 27 (83): 291–292.Google Scholar
  48. Gray, A. 1859b. Catalogue of the Phaenogamous and Acrogenous Plants Contained in Gray’s Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States, Adapted for Marking Desiderata in Exchanges of Specimens, Etc. The American Journal of Science and Arts (2nd Series) 27 (83): 292–293.Google Scholar
  49. Gray, A. 1862. Notes upon the “Description of New Plants from Texas, by S. B. Buckley,” Published in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Dec. 1861 and Jan. 1862. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 14: 161–168.Google Scholar
  50. Gray, A. 1863. Mémoires et Souvenirs de Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle, Ecrits par Lui-même et Publieés par Son Fils. The American Journal of Science and Arts (2nd Series) 35 (103): 1–16.Google Scholar
  51. Gray, A. 1866. Sir William Jackson Hooker. The American Journal of Science and Arts (2nd Series) 41 (121): 1–10.Google Scholar
  52. Gray, A. 1882. Remarks Concerning the Flora of North America. The American Journal of Science (3rd Series) 24 (143): 321–331.Google Scholar
  53. Gray, A. 1884. Memorials of George Engelmann and of Oswald Heer. The American Journal of Science (3rd Series) 28 (163): 61–69.Google Scholar
  54. Gray, J.L. (ed.). 1893. Letters of Asa Gray. Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin and Company.Google Scholar
  55. Heggie, V. 2014. Why Isn’t Exploration a Science? Isis 105 (2): 318–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hooker, W.J., ed. 1834. The Journal of Botany, Being a Second Series of the Botanical Miscellany; Containing Figures and Descriptions of Such Plants as Recommend Themselves by Their Novelty, Rarity, or History, or by the Uses to Which They are Applied in the Arts, in Medicine, and in Domestic Œconomy; Together with Occasional Botanical Notices and Information, vol. 1. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman.Google Scholar
  57. Hooker, W.J., ed. 1835–1836. Companion to the Botanical Magazine; Being a Journal Containing Such Interesting Botanical Information, as Does Not Come Within the Prescribed Limits of the Magazine; with Occasional Figures, vol. 1. London: Edward Couchman.Google Scholar
  58. Hooker, W.J., ed. 1836–1837. Companion to the Botanical Magazine; Being a Journal Containing Such Interesting Botanical Information, as Does Not Come within the Prescribed Limits of the Magazine; with Occasional Figures, vol. 2. London: Edward Couchman.Google Scholar
  59. Hooker, W.J., ed. 1848. The London Journal of Botany; Containing Figures and Descriptions of Such Plants as Recommend Themselves by Their Novelty, Rarity, History, or Uses; Together with Botanical Notices and Information, and Occasional Memoirs of Eminent Botanists, vol. 7. London: Reeve, Benham, and Reeve.Google Scholar
  60. Hoquet, H. 2014. Botanical Authority: Benjamin Delessert’s Collections between Travelers and Candolle’s Natural Method (1803–1847). Isis 105 (3): 508–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Irmscher, C. 2013. Louis Agassiz: Creator of American Science. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
  62. Keeney, E. 1992. The Botanizers: Amateur Scientists in Nineteenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  63. Kjærgaard, P.C. 2012. The Fossil Trade: Paying a Price for Human Origins. Isis 103 (2): 340–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kohler, R.E. 2002. Landscapes & Labscapes: Exploring the Lab-Field Border in Biology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kohler, R.E. 2008. From Farm and Family to Career Naturalist: The Apprenticeship of Vernon Bailey. Isis 99 (1): 28–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kohlstedt, S.G. 1976a. The Formation of the American Scientific Community: The American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1848–60. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  67. Kohlstedt, S.G. 1976b. The Nineteenth-Century Amateur Tradition: The Case of the Boston Society of Natural History. In Science and Its Public: The Changing Relationship, ed. G.J. Holton and W.A. Blanpied, 173–190. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Li, T.M. 2007. Practices of Assemblage and Community Forest Management. Economy and Society 36 (2): 263–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Li, T.M. 2014. What is Land? Assembling a Resource for Global Investment. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 39 (4): 589–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lucier, P. 2009. The Professional and the Scientist in Nineteenth-Century America. Isis 100 (4): 699–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lurie, E. 1988. Louis Agassiz: A Life in Science. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  72. McFarlane, C. 2009. Translocal Assemblages: Space, Power and Social Movements. Geoforum 40 (4): 561–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McFarlane, C. 2011. The City as Assemblage: Dwelling and Urban Space. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 29 (4): 649–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McOuat, G. 1996. Species, Rules and Meaning: The Politics of Language and the Ends of Definitions in 19th Century Natural History. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (4): 473–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McOuat, G. 2001a. Cataloguing Power: Delineating “Competent Naturalists” and the Meaning of Species in the British Museum. The British Journal for the History of Science 34 (1): 1–28.Google Scholar
  76. McOuat, G. 2001b. From Cutting Nature at Its Joints to Measuring It: New Kinds and New Kinds of People in Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (4): 613–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McOuat, G. 2009. The Origins of “Natural Kinds”: Keeping “Essentialism” at Bay in the Age of Reform. Intellectual History Review 19 (2): 211–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Muller, C.H., ed. 1980. Journey to Mexico During the Years 1826 to 1834. Austin, TX: Texas State Historical Association in cooperation with the Center for Studies in Texas History, University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  79. Müller, M., and C. Schurr. 2016. Assemblage Thinking and Actor-Network Theory: Conjunctions, Disjunctions, Cross-fertilisations. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 41 (3): 217–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Müller-Wille, S. 2003. Nature as a Marketplace: The Political Economy of Linnaean Botany. History of Political Economy 35 (5): 154–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Müller-Wille, S. 2007. Collection and Collation: Theory and Practice of Linnaean Botany. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (3): 541–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nicklin, P.H. 1841. Des Moulins’ General Considerations on Restricting the Number of Species of the Genera Unio and Anodonta. The American Journal of Science and Arts 41 (1): 104–116.Google Scholar
  83. Pauly, P.J. 2000. Biologists and the Promise of American Life: From Meriwether Lewis to Alfred Kinsey. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Porter, T.M. 2006. Is the Life of the Scientist a Scientific Unit? Isis 97 (2): 314–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rafinesque, C.S. 1836. New Flora and Botany of North America, Being a Supplemental Flora, to the Various Floras and Botanical Works of Michaux, Muhlenberg, Pursh, Nuttall, Elliot, Torrey, Beck, Eaton, Bigelow, Barton, Robin, Hooker, Riddell, Darlington, Schweinitz, Gibbs, &c. Besides the General Works of Linnaeus, Wildenow, Vahl, Vitman, Persoon, Lamark, Decandole, Sprengel, Jussieu, Adanson, Necker, Lindley, &c. Containing Nearly 500 Additional or Revised New Genera, and 1500 Additional or Corrected New Species, Illustrated by Figures in Autikon Botanikon (1st Part). Philadelphia, PA: Printed for the Author and Publisher.Google Scholar
  86. Rafinesque, C.S. 1836–1838. New Flora and Botany of North America, or a Supplemental Flora, Additional to All the Botanical Works on North America and the United States. Containing 1000 New or Revised Species. Philadelphia, PA: Printed for the Author and Publisher.Google Scholar
  87. Reingold, N. 1964. Science in Nineteenth-Century America: A Documentary History. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  88. Reveal, J.L. 2010. Asa Gray and the Botanical Exploration of the American West. Harvard Papers in Botany 15 (2): 309–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rickett, H.W., and C.L. Gilly. 1942. Asa Gray’s Earliest Botanical Publications (1833–1836). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 69 (6): 461–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rodgers, A.D. 1942. John Torrey: A Story of North American Botany. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Roemer, F. 1935. Texas: With Particular Reference to German Immigration and the Physical Appearance of the Country. San Antonio, TX: Standard Printing Co.Google Scholar
  92. Rieppel, L. 2015. Prospecting for Dinosaurs on the Mining Frontier: The Value of Information in America’s Gilded Age. Social Studies of Science 45 (2): 161–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ruskin, S. 2015. The Business of Natural History: Charles Aiken, Colorado Ornithology, and the Role of the Professional Collector. Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 45 (3): 357–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Secord, A. 1994a. Corresponding Interests: Artisans and Gentlemen in Nineteenth-Century Natural History. The British Journal for the History of Science 27 (4): 383–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Secord, A. 1994b. Science in the Pub: Artisan Botanists in Early Nineteenth-Century Lancashire. History of Science 32 (97): 269–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shapin, S. 1989. The Invisible Technician. American Scientist 77 (6): 554–563.Google Scholar
  97. Shapin, S., and S. Schaffer. 1985. Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Shaw, E.A. 1982. Augustus Fendler’s Collection List. New Mexico, 18461847. Cambridge, MA: Gray Herbarium of Harvard University.Google Scholar
  99. Shaw, E.A. 1987. Charles Wright on the Boundary, 1849–1852, or Plantae Wrightianae Revisited. Cambridge: Chadwyck-Healey.Google Scholar
  100. Short, C.W. 1833. Instructions for the Gathering and Preservation of Plants for Herbaria. Transylvania Journal of Medicine and the Associate Sciences 6 (1): 60–74.Google Scholar
  101. Soule, O.H. 1970. Dr. George Engelmann: The First Man of Cacti and a Complete Scientist. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 57 (2): 135–144.Google Scholar
  102. Stevens, P.F. 1996. J. D. Hooker, George Bentham, Asa Gray and Ferdinand Mueller on Species Limits in Theory and Practice: A Mid-Nineteenth-Century Debate and Its Repercussions. Historical Records of Australian Science 11 (3): 345–370.Google Scholar
  103. Stieber, M.T., and C. Lange. 1986. Augustus Fendler (1813–1883), Professional Plant Collector: Selected Correspondence with George Engelmann. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 73 (3): 520–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Torrey, J., and A. Gray. 1841. A Flora of North America: Containing Abridged Descriptions of All the Known Indigenous and Naturalized Plants Growing North of Mexico; Arranged According to the Natural System, vol. 2, Part 1. New York, NY: Wiley and Putnam.Google Scholar
  105. Warren, L. 2004. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque: A Voice in the American Wilderness. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and the Research Center for Future EarthNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations