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Structural organization, GABAergic and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the striatum and globus pallidus of the South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus (Rodentia, Caviomorpha)

  • Alejandro Raúl Schmidt
  • Pablo Ignacio Felipe Inserra
  • Santiago Andrés Cortasa
  • Santiago Elías Charif
  • Sofía Proietto
  • María Clara Corso
  • Federico Villarreal
  • Julia Halperin
  • César Fabián Loidl
  • Alfredo Daniel Vitullo
  • Verónica Berta DorfmanEmail author
Original Paper
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

The striatum is an essential component of the basal ganglia that regulatessensory processing, motor, cognition, and behavior. Depending on the species, the striatum shows a unique structure called caudate–putamen as in mice, or its separation into two regions called caudate and lenticular nuclei, the latter formed by putamen and globus pallidus areas, as in primates. These structures have two compartments, striosome and matrix. We investigated the structural organization, GABAergic and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the striatum and globus pallidus of the South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus. Its striatum showed regionalization arising from the presence of an internal capsule, and a similar organization to a striosome–matrix compartmentalization. GABAergic neurons in the matrix of caudate exhibited parvalbumin, calretinin, calbindin, GAD65, and NADPH-d-immunoreactivity. These were also expressed in cells of the putamen with the exception of calretinin showing neurofibers localization. Globus pallidus showed parvalbumin- and GAD65-immunoreactive cells, and calretinin- and calbindin-immunoreactive neuropil, plus GABA-A-immunoreactive neurofibers. NADPH-d-, GAD65- and GABA-A-immunoreactive neurons were larger than parvalbumin-, calretinin-, and calbindin-immunoreactive cells, whereas calbindin-immunoreactive cells were the most abundant. In addition, TH-immunoreactive neuropil was observed in the matrix of the striatum. A significant larger TH-immunoreactive area and neuron number was found in females compared to males. The presence of an internal capsule suggests an adaptive advantage concerning motor and cognitive abilities favoring reaction time in response to predators. In an anatomy-evolutive perspective, the striatum of vizcacha seems to be closer to that of humans than to that of laboratory traditional models such as mouse.

Keywords

Striatum GABA Tyrosine hydroxylase Sexual dimorphism Vizcacha 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are especially grateful to the Ministerio de AsuntosAgrarios, Dirección de Flora y Fauna, Buenos Aires Province Government for enabling animal capture, to the personnel of ECAS for their invaluable help in trapping and handling the animals, to MV. Sergio Ferraris and MV. Fernando Lange and their veterinarian staff for their essential help on vizcachas handling and anesthetizing, to Ms. Sol ClausiSchettini for her excellent technical assistance in tissue processing, and Mr. Santiago Cicculli for his microscopy technical assistance.This work was funded by theNational Scientific and Technical Research Council(CONICET): PIP No. 110/14, National Scientific and Technical Ministry (MINCyT): PICT-1281/2014, and by FundaciónCientífica Felipe Fiorellino, Universidad Maimónides, Argentina.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alejandro Raúl Schmidt
    • 1
    • 3
  • Pablo Ignacio Felipe Inserra
    • 1
    • 3
  • Santiago Andrés Cortasa
    • 1
    • 3
  • Santiago Elías Charif
    • 1
    • 3
  • Sofía Proietto
    • 1
    • 3
  • María Clara Corso
    • 1
    • 3
  • Federico Villarreal
    • 1
  • Julia Halperin
    • 1
    • 3
  • César Fabián Loidl
    • 2
  • Alfredo Daniel Vitullo
    • 1
    • 3
  • Verónica Berta Dorfman
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Centro de Estudios Biomédicos, Biotecnológicos, Ambientales y Diagnóstico (CEBBAD)Universidad MaimónidesCiudad Autónoma de Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Neuropatología Experimental, Instituto de Biología Celular Y Neurociencia (IBCN) “Prof. E. De Robertis”, Facultad de MedicinaUniversidad de Buenos Aires, CONICETCiudad Autónoma de Buenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas Y Técnicas (CONICET)Buenos AiresArgentina

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