Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in tooth development. However, their expression has not been studied in miniature pigs, which have many anatomical similarities in oral and maxillofacial region compared to human. This study investigated BMP2/4/7 expression patterns during deciduous molar development in miniature pigs on embryonic days (E) 40, 50, and 60. The mandibles were fixed, decalcified, and embedded before sectioning. H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization using specific radionuclide-labeled cRNA probes, and real-time PCR were used to detect the BMP expression patterns during morphogenesis of the third deciduous molar. H&E staining showed that for the deciduous third molar, E40 represented the cap stage, E50 represented the early bell stage, and E60 represented the late bell stage or secretory stage. BMP2 was expressed in both the enamel organ and in the dental mesenchyme on E40 and E50 and was expressed mainly in pre-odontoblasts on E60. BMP7 expression was similar to BMP2 expression, but BMP7 was also expressed in the inner enamel epithelium on E60. On E40, BMP4 was expressed mainly in the epithelium, with some weak expression in the mesenchyme. On E50, BMP4 expression was stronger in the mesenchyme but weaker in the epithelium. On E60, BMP4 was expressed mainly in the mesenchyme. These data indicated that BMP2/4/7 showed differential spatial and temporal expression during the morphogenesis and odontogenesis of deciduous molars, suggesting that these molecules were associated with tooth morphogenesis and cell differentiation.
BMP2/4/7 Tooth Development Miniature pig
Hematoxylin & eosin
Inner enamel epithelium
Outer enamel epithelium
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This work was supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81600884), Beijing Municipal Administration of Hospitals ‘Youth Programme, code: QML20171502’, Beijing Municipal Organization Department of outstanding talent project (Grant No. 2016000021 469G205). Beijing Municipality Government grants (Beijing Scholar Program- PXM2018_014226_000021, PXM2017_014226_000023, PXM2018_193312_000006_0028S643_FCG PXM2016_014226_000034, PXM2016_014226_000006).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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