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Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 88, Issue 1, pp 49–59 | Cite as

PHD type zinc finger protein PFP represses flowering by modulating FLC expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

  • Yuri Yokoyama
  • Satoru Kobayashi
  • Shin-ichiro KidouEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

FLC is an integrative regulator of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression of FLC gene is regulated by epigenetic control via histone modification. Plant homeodomain (PHD) finger is a sequence-specific histone binding motif evolutionary conserved in eukaryotes. It has been known that PHD finger proteins play a significant role as a regulator of epigenetic gene expression. In this study, we investigated the role of an Arabidopsis PHD finger protein homolog, named PFP (PHD finger domain containing protein). Phenotypic analysis using a loss-of-function line of PFP (SALK_034619) showed early flowering as compared with the control (Col-0) under long-day condition that promotes flowering, suggesting that PFP is essential in the flowering repression of Arabidopsis. The analyses of major flowering regulatory gene expressions (FLC, FT, CO, FCA, FLK, FLV, EBS, TFL2) indicated that the expression of floral repressor FLC was decreased, while the one of floral inducer FT was increased in the SALK_034619. On the contrary, in the transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing PFP, the flowering time was delayed and the expression pattern of flowering regulatory genes was reversed in which FLC was upregulated and FT was downregulated, suggesting that PFP is sufficient to regulate flowering regulatory genes. Based on these results, we conclude that PFP controls flowering time by suppressing the upstream of major flowering regulatory genes via FLC expression in Arabidopsis.

Keywords

Arabidopsis thaliana FLC Flowering Gene expression Histone H3 PHD finger 

Abbreviations

ATX7

ATX-related7

CO

CONSTANS

Col

Columbia

EBS

EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS

FT

FLOWERING LOCUS T

FLC

FLOWERING LOCUS C

FLK

FLOWERING LOCUS KH DOMAIN

FRI

FRIGIDA

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

GST

Glutathione S-transferase

H3K4me3

Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation

JMJ

Jumonji demethylase

LD

Long day

mRNA

Messenger RNA

MS

Murashige and Skoog

qRT-PCR

Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR

ORF

Open reading frame

ox

Over-expression

PHD

Plant homeodomain

PFP

PHD finger domain containing protein

PRC2

Polycomb complex 2

35S

Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA

SD

Short day

SOC1

SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1

SVP

SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE

TFL2

TERMINAL FLOWER 2

VIN3

VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE 3

VRN2

VERNALIZATION2

WT

Wild type

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. H. Tagami for help in preparing the manuscript. This work was supported by a grant-in aid for Research in Nagoya City University, Japan.

Supplementary material

10725_2019_487_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1263 KB)
10725_2019_487_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (104 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 103 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuri Yokoyama
    • 1
    • 3
  • Satoru Kobayashi
    • 2
  • Shin-ichiro Kidou
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Graduate School of Natural SciencesNagoya City UniversityNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic MedicineOld WestburyUSA
  3. 3.Research Center for Biological DiversityNagoya City UniversityNagoyaJapan

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