Influence of exogenous calcium on the physiological, biochemical, phytochemical and ionic homeostasis of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) subjected to fluorine stress

  • Jinlei Luo
  • Dejiang Ni
  • Chang He
  • Shanming Zhang
  • Siyi Liu
  • Yaru Du
  • Yuqiong ChenEmail author
Original Paper


Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) may hyperaccumulate fluorine (F) in its leaves, which may cause fluorosis in tea consumers. Recent studies have implied that exogenous calcium (Ca) may reduce F in tea leaves, although our mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon remains limited. Here, the effects of exogenous Ca on the physiological, biochemical and ionic homeostasis of tea leaves were investigated in the presence and absence of F. Elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and impaired cellular ultrastructure indicated that exogenous F induced stress in tea plants subjected to deficient Ca (0.01, 0.05 mM) and extremely excessive Ca (10 mM) treatments. Additionally, more F were accumulated in leaves compared to the control when tea plants were treated with 0.5 mM Ca. The lowest levels of MDA and F were observed at an optimal level of 5 mM Ca. F increased the levels of caffeine, polyphenols, and catechins, but decreased the content of soluble sugars and gallic acid when the level of Ca was within 5 mM. Moreover, based on a multivariate analysis on ionic composition, the Ca-regulated disorder in the homeostasis of B, Al, Cu, and Zn was strongly correlated with the accumulation of F. Our results demonstrate that within a range of concentrations, exogenous Ca was able to reduce F content and enhance F tolerance in tea leaves. These effects of exogenous Ca on F tolerance may be related to ionic homeostasis.


Tea leaves Fluorine stress Calcium Biochemical components Ion homeostasis 



This work was financially supported by a grant from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31470691).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinlei Luo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dejiang Ni
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chang He
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shanming Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Siyi Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yaru Du
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yuqiong Chen
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, Ministry of Education, College of Horticulture and Forestry SciencesHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture in Central China, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Horticulture and Forestry SciencesHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina

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