NaCl- and cold-induced stress activate different Ca2+-permeable channels in Arabidopsis thaliana
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Salinity (NaCl) and low temperatures significantly affect plant growth, development, and agricultural productivity. Both these stresses trigger an increase in free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) via Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. However, the interaction between salinity- and low temperature-induced [Ca2+]i increases are still poorly understood. We used aequorin to investigate the NaCl- and cold-induced [Ca2+]i signals in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that the combination of NaCl and cold stimuli induced a greater increase in [Ca2+]i than that by either NaCl or cold separately. Therefore, we showed that these factors had an additive effect on [Ca2+]i increase. Following a pre-treatment of either NaCl or cold, the increase in [Ca2+]i significantly declined in response to a second NaCl treatment or cold exposure. After pre-treatment with NaCl, a subsequent cold stimulus suppressed [Ca2+]i increase to a lesser degree than that by a second NaCl treatment. A similar response was observed after pre-treatment with cold and subsequent treatment with NaCl, but the peak [Ca2+]i differed between them. We propose that NaCl-induced Ca2+ channels differ from those induced by cold and that a feedback mechanism may exist between NaCl- and cold-evoked [Ca2+]i. The Ca2+-permeable channels activated by NaCl were similar to those induced by cold stress; however, they may be expressed in different cells and activated by different signaling pathways. Our results indicated that there is a cross-adaptation in [Ca2+]i changes in response to NaCl- and cold-induced stresses.
KeywordsFree cytosolic Ca2+ Ca2+-permeable channel Ca2+ influx Interaction Soil salinity Cold stress
The authors thank M. R. Knight for providing aequorin-expressing Arabidopsis seeds and Prof. Zhenming Pei for valuable advice and support regarding the experiment. This work is financially supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31400229) and by the public welfare projects of Zhejiang Province (No. 2014C32121). This work was also supported by the Zhejiang Province Public Welfare Technology Application Research Project (LGN18C020005).
XL and YT designed the experiments. CW, YT, LZ performed them. SZ, CW, XL analyzed the data. SZ, YT provided the reagents, apparatus, and analytical tools. All authors listed approved it for publication. YT and SZ reviewed the article, XL wrote the manuscript.
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