Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 87, Issue 1, pp 123–137 | Cite as

Aluminum-induced high IAA concentration may explain the Al susceptibility in Citrus limonia

  • Carolina M. S. Silva
  • Mariana F. Cavalheiro
  • Anna C. G. Bressan
  • Brenda M. O. Carvalho
  • Otavia F. A. A. Banhos
  • Eduardo Purgatto
  • Ricardo Harakava
  • Francisco A. O. Tanaka
  • Gustavo HabermannEmail author
Original paper


In acidic soils (pH < 5.0), aluminum (Al) occurs as Al3+, which is phytotoxic and reduces the root growth by hormonal imbalance and/or cell wall rigidity. However, the explanations for the decrease in root growth are not clear. A 60-day study was held with ‘Rangpur’ lime (Citrus limonia) plants grown in nutrient solution containing 0 and 1480 µM Al. We measured plant biometric data and used root apices to analyze auxin (IAA), the expression of some Al-responsive genes that had been differentially expressed in a transcriptome analysis and anatomical profiles. We found up-regulated expression of multidrug and toxic compound exudation (Cl-MATE channel), citrate synthase (Cl-CS) and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (Cl-PMEI) genes, but while Cl-PMEI expression was increased after 7 days, Cl-CS and Cl-MATE were up-regulated only after 60 days, suggesting that the timing of these events was ineffective against Al. These results could be associated with the Al-induced decrease in root growth and anatomical root damage. In addition, genes related to IAA cell transport were not differentially expressed in the transcriptome analysis. Therefore, high IAA and up-regulation of auxin-related small RNAs suggest Al-induced high IAA concentration rather than Al-induced disruption in IAA distribution in root cells of this species.


Al3+ Auxin Efflux channels Gene expression ‘Rangpur’ lime Root growth 



We acknowledge the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for financial support (474169/2013-8 grant to GH), for an undergraduate scholarship to M.F. Cavalheiro and for research fellowships granted to G. Habermann (Grant 309149/2017-7) and E. Purgatto (Grant 305458/2013-2). We extend acknowledgments to the São Paulo Research Foundation (Fapesp) for PhD scholarships granted to C.M.S. da Silva (Fapesp #2013/11370-3), A.C.G. Bressan (Fapesp #2014/14386-0), a MSc scholarship to B.M.O. Carvalho (Fapesp #2016/14216-3) and a grant to E. Purgatto (Fapesp #2013/07914-8), and also to the Coordination for Improvement of Graduate Personnel (Capes) for a PhD scholarship granted to O.F.A.A. Banhos. We thank the Sanicitrus Nursery (Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil) for providing us with the ‘Rangpur’ lime plants.

Supplementary material

10725_2018_458_MOESM1_ESM.docx (43 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 43 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carolina M. S. Silva
    • 1
  • Mariana F. Cavalheiro
    • 1
  • Anna C. G. Bressan
    • 1
  • Brenda M. O. Carvalho
    • 1
  • Otavia F. A. A. Banhos
    • 1
  • Eduardo Purgatto
    • 2
  • Ricardo Harakava
    • 3
  • Francisco A. O. Tanaka
    • 4
  • Gustavo Habermann
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Biologia Vegetal), Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de BotânicaUniversidade Estadual Paulista, UNESPRio ClaroBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental/NAPAN/FoRC-Food Research Center, Faculdade de Ciências FarmacêuticasUniversidade de São Paulo, USPSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Centro de P&D de Sanidade Vegetal, Laboratório de Bioquímica FitopatológicaInstituto BiológicoSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de Fitopatologia e NematologiaEscola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiróz” - Universidade de São Paulo, ESALQ-USPPiracicabaBrazil
  5. 5.Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade Estadual Paulista, UNESPRio ClaroBrazil

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