Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 87, Issue 1, pp 109–121 | Cite as

Effects of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate and paclobutrazol on the endogenous hormones of two contrasting rice varieties under submergence stress

  • Wu Hui 
  • Chen Huizhe 
  • Zhang Yikai 
  • Zhang Yuping Email author
  • Zhu Defeng Email author
  • Xiang Jing Email author
Original paper


Phytohormone play important roles in regulating developmental processes and signaling networks involved in plant responses to submergence stress. We studied the growth, leaf endogenous hormonal levels and related genes of two contrasting rice genotypes (IR64 and IR64-Sub1) pretreated with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) and paclobutrazol (PB) under submergence conditions. Submergence promoted underwater shoot elongation, chlorophyll degradation and expression of OsCIPK15, altered the leaf endogenous hormone levels, accelerated the yellowing and senescence of leaves, and decreased shoot dry weight and the plant survival rate. IR64 was more sensitive to submergence stress, showing larger increases of leaf GAs, ABA, IAA contents and the expression of OsCPS1, OsGA20ox1 and OsIAA11, which in IR64-Sub1 were significantly decreased with prolonged stress. Furthermore, IR64 showed decreased ZR content, cZOGT1 expression, GA/ABA and ZR/IAA, while IR64-Sub1 showed opposite trends. Shoot elongation, leaf yellowing and senescence, GAs and IAA contents and the expression of OsCPS1, OsGA20ox1 and OsIAA11 in submerged rice leaves were enhanced by ACC application, whereas PB treatment showed opposite effects, and the effects on underwater elongation of PB and Sub1 were clearly superimposable. Compared with GA/ABA, ZR/IAA was not only suitable for non-Sub1 genotypes, but also more accurate in reflecting the submergence characteristics in IR64-Sub1. These findings improve our understanding of the intricate web of connections between plant hormones that regulate physiological responses to stress.


Oryza sativa L. Submergence stress Phytohormone Sub1 Leaf senescence 



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31501272), Agricultural Sciences and Technologies Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) to Rice High Efficiency cultivation technology Group, and Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest (Grant No. 2101203032). We thank Robbie Lewis, MSc, from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Group China (, for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript.

Author contributions

H.Wu, J.Xiang. and D.H.Zhu. conceived the project, designed and coordinated the experiments, H.Wu, J.Xiang. H.Z.Chen, Y.P.Zhang, and Y.K.Zhang performed the physiological experiments and analysed the data, H.Wu and J.Xiang wrote the manuscript. J.Xiang and Y.P.Zhang completed qRT-PCR tests, data analysis and paper revision. All author read the paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of competing financial and non-financial interests, or other interests that might be perceived to influence the results and/or discussion reported in this paper.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Lab of Rice BiologyNational Rice Research InstituteHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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