Low concentration of corn steep liquor promotes seed germination, plant growth, biomass production and flowering in soybean
- 47 Downloads
Corn steep liquor (CSL), which has a great potential use in agricultural production, is an organic liquid waste discharged from corn wet-milling. In this work, the possible application of CSL as a growth stimulant and fertilizer was assessed in soybean plants. We found that treatment with low concentration of CSL significantly improved the germination rate of soybean seeds. After 36 h, the germination rate (69%) of soybean seeds treated with 1% CSL was almost two times of that (35%) of the control seeds. After 84 h, the germination rate (95%) of soybean seeds treated with 1% CSL was still 12% higher than that (83%) of the control seeds. Treatment with 1% CSL also increased soil pH and optimized the availability of nutrients in the rhizosphere, leading to promoted vegetative growth and earlier flowering of soybean plants. Further studies revealed that the expression level of some nutrient absorption and transport related genes in the roots of soybean plants treated with 1% CSL was remarkable higher than that in the roots of control plants. All these results demonstrate that CSL can be used as a potential stimulant and fertilizer to increase the growth rate of soybean plants.
KeywordsCorn steep liquor Flowering Plant growth Seed germination Soybean
We thank Prof. Lin-Lin Dong (Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China) for her critical reading of this manuscript.
This work has been jointly supported by the following grants: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (31601816, 31601623); The Modern Agricultural Industry Technology System Innovation Team of Shandong Province of China (SDAIT-02-05); the National Mega Project of GMO Crops of China (2016ZX08004-002-006); the Agricultural Seed Project of Shandong Province of China (2016LZGC018); Key R & D project of Shandong Province (2018GNC110007); National Students’ project for innovation and entrepreneurship training program (201810451094).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
We declare that we do not have any commercial or associative interest that represents a conflict of interest in connection with the work submitted.
- Chapman HD (1965) Cation exchange capacity. In: Black CA (ed) Methods of Soil analysis: part 2. American Society of Agronomy, MadisonGoogle Scholar
- Chinta Y, Kano K, Widiastuti A, Fukahori M, Kawasaki S, Eguchi Y, Misu H, Odani H, Zhou S, Narisawa K, Fujiwara K, Shinohara M, Sato T (2014) Effect of corn steep liquor on lettuce root rot (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae) in hydroponic cultures. J Sci Food Agric 94:2017–2023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hilhorst HWM, Karssen CM, Fenner M (2000) Effect of chemical environment on seed germination. In: Fenner M (ed) Seeds: the ecology of regeneration in plant communities. CABI, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
- Mehmood A, Naeem M, Khalid F, Saeed Y, Abbas T, Jabran K, Sarwar MA, Tanveer A, Javaid MM (2018) Identification of phytotoxins in different plant parts of Brassica napus and their influence on mung bean. Environ Sci Pollut R 4:1–10Google Scholar
- Moreau S, Thomson R, Kaiser B, Trevaskis B, Guerinot ML, Udvardi MK, Puppo A, Day DA (2002) GmZIP1 encodes a symbiosis-specific zinc transporter in soybean. J Biol Chem 15:4728–4746Google Scholar
- Pal P, Ghosh P (2010) Effect of different sources and levels of potassium on growth, flowering and yield of African marigold (Tagetes erecta Linn.) cv. ‘Siracole’. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 3:371–375Google Scholar
- Peech M (1965) Exchange acidity. In: Black CA (ed) Methods of soil analysis: part 2. American Society of Agronomy, MadisonGoogle Scholar
- Shameer S, Prasad TNVKV (2018) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sustainable agricultural practices with special reference to biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant Growth Regul 84(2):1–13Google Scholar
- Zhang FG, Meng XH, Feng CL, Ran W, Yu GH, Zhang YJ, Shen QR (2016) Hydrolytic amino acids employed as a novel organic nitrogen source for the preparation of PGPF-containing bio-organic fertilizer for plant growth promotion and characterization of substance transformation during BOF production. PLoS ONE 11:e0149447CrossRefGoogle Scholar