Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 66, Issue 8, pp 1671–1689 | Cite as

Phenotypic characterization and quality traits of Greek garlic (Allium sativum L.) germplasm cultivated at two different locations

  • Nikolaos Polyzos
  • Vasileios Papasotiropoulos
  • Fotini N. Lamari
  • Spyridon A. Petropoulos
  • Penelope J. BebeliEmail author
Research Article


In the present study, we examined the phenotypic diversity of Greek garlic (Allium sativum L.) genotypes using morphological descriptors derived from IPGRI and UPOV. Thirty-four garlic genotypes were cultivated at two different locations: (a) Velestino, Magnesia, Region of Thessaly, and (b) Kavasila, Ilia, Region of Western Greece. The garlic genotypes were characterized using twenty-seven morphological descriptors and four quantitative characters, namely bulb dry matter, chlorophyll content in the leaf, yield and total soluble solids (°Brix) of plants and raw bulbs. The Shannon–Weaver (H′) phenotypic diversity index varied among the genotypes, although identical mean values (0.79) were recorded for both fields. Traits, such as flowering stem length, bulb skin color, skin color of the clove presented low (H′) values indicating a high coefficient of heritability and less environmental effect. Principal component analysis based on morphological characters showed that the first seven axes could explain 71.49% and 75.86% of total variation for Kavasila and Velestino fields respectively. Significant differences were also observed among the garlic genotypes for the quantitative characters studied. Furthermore, significant statistical correlations were recorded for specific characters between the two cultivation sites e.g. yield with weight of cloves (r = 0.55 and r = 0.62) and number of cloves per bulb with weight of cloves (r = −0.51 and r = −0.55), which could be exploited further in future breeding programs. In conclusion, the high phenotypic diversity observed among the garlic genotypes could be attributed to various factors such as the genotype, the cultivation practices and the environmental conditions.


Allium sativum L. Garlic Landraces Morphological descriptors Phenotypic diversity 



We would like to thank Dr. R. Thanopoulos from Agricultural University of Athens, for participating in the collection of the plant material, the farmers that shared with us the bulbs of their landraces used in this study. We would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions to improve the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10722_2019_831_MOESM1_ESM.docx (95 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 96 kb)
10722_2019_831_MOESM2_ESM.docx (85 kb)
Supplementary file2 (DOCX 85 kb)
10722_2019_831_MOESM3_ESM.docx (1.2 mb)
Supplementary file3 (DOCX 1179 kb)
10722_2019_831_MOESM4_ESM.docx (148 kb)
Supplementary file4 (DOCX 149 kb)
10722_2019_831_MOESM5_ESM.docx (66 kb)
Supplementary file5 (DOCX 66 kb)
10722_2019_831_MOESM6_ESM.xlsx (22 kb)
Supplementary file6 (XLSX 23 kb)


  1. Baghalian K, Ziai SA, Naghavi MR, Badi HN, Khalighi A (2005) Evaluation of allicin content and botanical traits in Iranian garlic (Allium sativum L.) ecotypes. Sci Hortic 103(2):155–166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Batth GS, Kumar H, Gupta V, Brar PS (2013) GGE biplot analysis for characterization of garlic (Allium sativum L.) germplasm based on agro-morphological traits. Int J Plant Breed 7(2):106–110Google Scholar
  3. Bhatt B, Soni AK, Jangid K, Kumar S (2017) A study on genetic variability, character association and path coefficient analysis in promising indigenous genotypes of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Int J Pure App Biosci 5(1):679–686. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chotaliya P, Kulkarni GU (2017) Character association and path analysis for quantitative traits in garlic (Allium sativum L.). Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6(8):175–184. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Lucena RRM, de Negreiros MZ, de Morais PLD, Lopes WDAR, Soares AM (2016) Qualitative analysis of vernalizated semi-noble garlic cultivars in western Rio Grande do Norte State. Brazil. Rev Caatinga 29(3):764–773. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Diriba-Shiferaw G, Nigussie-Dechassa R, Kebede W, Getachew T, Sharma JJ (2013) Growth and nutrients content and uptake of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) as influenced by different types of fertilizers and soils. Sci Technol Arts Res J 2:35–50. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Draghi JA, Whitlock MC (2012) Phenotypic plasticity facilitates mutational variance, genetic variance, and evolvability along the major axis of environmental variation. Evolution 66(9):2891–2902. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Eticha F, Bekele E, Belay G, Börner A (2005) Phenotypic diversity in tetraploid wheats collected from Bale and Wello regions of Ethiopia. Plant Genet Resour 3(1):35–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Etoh T, Simon PW (2002) Diversity, fertility and seed production of garlic. In: Rabinowitch HD, Currah L (eds) Allium crop science: recent advances, 1st edn. CABI publishing, Wallingford, Oxford, pp 101–117.
  10. Fanaei H, Narouirad M, Farzanjo M, Ghasemi M (2014) Evaluation of yield and some agronomical traits in garlic genotypes (Allium sativum L.). Annu Res Rev Biol 4(22):3386–3391. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hanelt MJ, Schulze-Motel Fritsch RM, Kruse J, Maass H, Ohle H, Pistrick K (1992) Infrageneric approach. In: Hanelt P, Hammer K, Pistrick H (eds) The genus Allium—taxonomic problems and genetic resources. Gatersleben, Germany, pp 107–123Google Scholar
  12. Harris JC, Cottrell SL, Plummer S, Lloyd D (2001) Antimicrobial properties of Allium sativum L. (garlic). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57(3):282–286. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hirata S, Abdelrahman M, Yamauchi N, Shigyo M (2016) Diversity evaluation based on morphological, physiological and isozyme variation in genetic resources of garlic (Allium sativum L.) collected worldwide. Genes Genet Syst 91(3):161–173. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoogerheide ESS, Azevedo Filho JA, Vencovsky R, Zucchi MI, Zago BW, Pinheiro JB (2017) Genetic variability of garlic accessions as revealed by agro-morphological traits evaluated under different environments. Genet Mol Res 16(2):1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ipek M, Ipek A, Almquist SG, Simon PW (2005) Demonstration of linkage and development of the first low-density genetic map of garlic, based on AFLP markers. Τheor Appl Genet 110(2):228–236. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. IPGRI (2001) Descriptors for Allium spp International Plant Genetic Resources Intitute. Rome, Italy.
  17. Jabbes N, Arnault I, Auger J, Dridi BAM, Hannachi C (2012) Agro-morphological markers and organo-sulphur compounds to assess diversity in Tunisian garlic landraces. Sci Hortic 148:47–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaushik S, Kumar M, Prakash S, Kumar V, Singh MK, Singh B, Malik S, Singh K (2016) Study of genetic diversity in garlic (Allium sativum L.) by using morphological characters. Prog Agric 16(2):204–210. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Khan H, Ηussain MM, Jellani G, Hidayatullah Tariq S, Naseeb T, Mahmood S (2018) Evaluation of garlic genotypes for yield and yield components in Islamabad, Pakistan environment. Nucleus 55(1):22–26Google Scholar
  20. Kumar M (2015) Morphological characterization of garlic (Allium sativum L.) germplasm. J Plant Develop Sci 7(5):473–474Google Scholar
  21. Kumar S, Samnotra RK, Kumar M, Khar S (2015) Character associaton and path analysis in garlic (Allium spp.) germplasm under sub tropical enviroment of Jammu. Bioscan 10:1997–2003Google Scholar
  22. McCollumn GD (1987) Onion and allies. In: Smartt J, Simmonds NW (eds) Evolution of crop plants, 2nd edn. Longman, London, pp 186–190Google Scholar
  23. Mohammadi B, Khodadadi M, Karami E, Shaaf S (2014) Variation in agro-morphological characters in Iranian garlic landraces. Int J Veg Sci 20(3):202:215. doi:10.1080/19315260.2013.788594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Panthee DR, Kc RB, Regmi HN, Subedi PP, Bhattarai S, Dhakal J (2006) Diversity analysis of garlic (Allium sativum L.) germplasms Aavailable in Nepal based on morphological characters. Genet Resour Crop Evol 53(1):205–212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Paredes MC, Becerra VV, González MIA (2008) Low genetic diversity among garlic (Allium sativum L.) accessions detected using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Chil J Agr Res 68(1):3–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Petropoulos SA, Fernandes Â, Ntatsi G, Petrotos K, Barros L, Ferreira ICFR (2018) Nutritional value, chemical characterization and bulb morphology of Greek garlic landraces. Molecules 23(319):1–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Raja H, Ram CN, Sriom, Bhargav KK, Pandey M, Jain A (2017) Genetic variability assessment in garlic (Allium sativum L.) genotypes. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 6(6):1781–1786Google Scholar
  28. Sabir M, Singh D, Jat BL (2017) Study of morphological and molecular characterization of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Asian J Hort 12(1):141–159. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shandhu SS, Brar PS, Dhall RK (2015) Variability of agronomic and quality characteristics of garlic (Allium sativum L.) ecotypes. SABRAO J Breed Genet 47:133–142Google Scholar
  30. Sharma VR, Malik S, Kumar M, Sirohi A (2018) Morphological classification of genetic diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) germplasm for bulb and yield-related traits using principal component analysis. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 7(6):2016–2022. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sharma VR, Omotayo K, Malik S, Kumar M, Sirohi A (2016) Character association and path analysis in garlic (Allium sativum L.). The Bioscan 11(3):1931–1935Google Scholar
  32. Simon P.W. (2001) The origins and distribution of garlic: how many garlics are there? USDA, ARS, Vegetable Crop Research Unit, Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  33. Singh G, Ram CN, Singh A, Shrivastav SP, Maurya PK, Kumar P (2018) Genetic variability, heritability, and genetic advance for yield and its contributing traits in garlic. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 7:1362–1372. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Singh L, Kaul V, Gohil RN (2014) Analysis of morphological variability in the Indian germplasm of Allium sativum L. Plant Syst Evol 300(2):245–254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Singh RK, Dubey BK, Gupta RP (2012) Studies on variability and genetic divergence in elite lines of garlic (Allium sativum L.). J Spices Aromat Crops 21(2):36–144Google Scholar
  36. Singh RK, Dubey BK, Bhonde SR, Gupta RP (2011) Correlation and path analysis studies in garlic (Allium sativum L.). J Spices Aromat Crops 20(2):81–85Google Scholar
  37. Terzopoulos P, Bebeli PJ (2010) Phenotypic diversity in Greek tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L) genotypes. Sci Hortic. 126(2):138–144. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Trani PE, Passos FA, Foltran DE, Tivelli SW, Ribeiro IJA (2005) Evaluation of garlic accesses from the collection of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas. Ηortic Bras 23:935–939. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. UPOV (2001) Guidelines for the conduct of tests for distinctness, uniformity and stability International Union for the protection of new varieties of plans. Genova, Italy.
  40. Velisek J, Kubec R, Davidek J (1997) Chemical composition and classification of culinary and pharmaceutical garlic-based products. Eur Food Res Technol 204(2):161–164. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vieira RL, Nodari RO (2007) Genetic diversity of garlic revealed by RAPD markers. Cienc Rural 37(1):51–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang H, Li X, Shen D, Oiu Y, Song J (2014) Diversity evaluation of morphological traits and allicin content in garlic (Allium sativum L.) from China. Euphytica 198(2):243–254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yeshiwas Y, Negash B (2017) Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of growth and yield components of garlic (Allium sativum L.) germplasms. J Biol Agric Healthc 7(21):84–91Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Plant Breeding and Biometry, Department of Crop ScienceAgricultural University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of AgricultureUniversity of PatrasAmaliadaGreece
  3. 3.Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Chemistry of Natural Products, Department of PharmacyUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  4. 4.Laboratory of Vegetable Crops, Department of Agriculture Crop Production and Rural EnvironmentUniversity of ThessalyNea IoniaGreece

Personalised recommendations