Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 66, Issue 8, pp 1813–1824 | Cite as

Genetic diversity and population structure of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw Cheesman) landraces of Gurage zone, Ethiopia

  • Fetta Negash GeruraEmail author
  • Beira Hailu Meressa
  • Kyallo Martina
  • Abush Tesfaye
  • Temesgen Magule Olango
  • Yao Nasser
Research Article


Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman), which feeds around 20 million Ethiopian people, is a unique crop; with all parts of the plant are utilizable. It is, arguably, less researched crop and the mode of production remained conventional. Understanding the extent of genetic diversity in the crop, especially making use of genotyping data, is a very important first step in the genetic improvement of the crop. Twelve polymorphic enset SSR markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 79 cultivated landraces and four wild enset individuals collected from different enset growing locations of Ethiopia. The polymorphic information content of markers ranged from 0.62 to 0.77 with a mean value of 0.69. A total of 77 alleles were identified, and the average observed heterozygosity varied from 0.51 to 0.67. A mean gene diversity of 0.59 was recorded ranging from 0.55 to 0.62. The AMOVA revealed that within population allelic variations contributed more to the genetic diversity than among population variations. Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components and population structure analysis grouped the 83 enset germplasms into three major clusters, where the wild individuals clustered distinctly. Outcomes of this research provide valuable information for enset conservation and breeding strategies especially for development of resistance for bacterial wilt and nematode attacks.


Polymorphic information SSR markers Genetic distance Gene diversity Discriminant analysis 



This work was supported by BecA-ILRI Hub through the Africa Biosciences Challenge Fund (ABCF) program. The ABCF program is funded by the Australian Department for Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) through the BecA-CSIRO partnership; the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture (SFSA); the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF); the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). The authors are grateful to Jean-Baka Domelevo Entfellner for his valuable support on data analysis. Areka Agricultural Research Center and Wolkite University are kindly acknowledged for the provision of wild and cultivated enset germplasms.


This study was funded by BecA-ILRI Hub through the Africa Biosciences Challenge Fund (ABCF) program (02/RF/18/4857).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Disease Diagnostics LabJimma UniversityJimmaEthiopia
  2. 2.Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) HubNairobiKenya
  3. 3.International Institute of Tropical AgricultureIbadanNigeria
  4. 4.School of Plant and HorticultureHawassa UniversityHawassaEthiopia

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