Advertisement

Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 66, Issue 8, pp 1813–1824 | Cite as

Genetic diversity and population structure of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw Cheesman) landraces of Gurage zone, Ethiopia

  • Fetta Negash GeruraEmail author
  • Beira Hailu Meressa
  • Kyallo Martina
  • Abush Tesfaye
  • Temesgen Magule Olango
  • Yao Nasser
Research Article
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman), which feeds around 20 million Ethiopian people, is a unique crop; with all parts of the plant are utilizable. It is, arguably, less researched crop and the mode of production remained conventional. Understanding the extent of genetic diversity in the crop, especially making use of genotyping data, is a very important first step in the genetic improvement of the crop. Twelve polymorphic enset SSR markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 79 cultivated landraces and four wild enset individuals collected from different enset growing locations of Ethiopia. The polymorphic information content of markers ranged from 0.62 to 0.77 with a mean value of 0.69. A total of 77 alleles were identified, and the average observed heterozygosity varied from 0.51 to 0.67. A mean gene diversity of 0.59 was recorded ranging from 0.55 to 0.62. The AMOVA revealed that within population allelic variations contributed more to the genetic diversity than among population variations. Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components and population structure analysis grouped the 83 enset germplasms into three major clusters, where the wild individuals clustered distinctly. Outcomes of this research provide valuable information for enset conservation and breeding strategies especially for development of resistance for bacterial wilt and nematode attacks.

Keywords

Polymorphic information SSR markers Genetic distance Gene diversity Discriminant analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by BecA-ILRI Hub through the Africa Biosciences Challenge Fund (ABCF) program. The ABCF program is funded by the Australian Department for Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) through the BecA-CSIRO partnership; the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture (SFSA); the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF); the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). The authors are grateful to Jean-Baka Domelevo Entfellner for his valuable support on data analysis. Areka Agricultural Research Center and Wolkite University are kindly acknowledged for the provision of wild and cultivated enset germplasms.

Funding

This study was funded by BecA-ILRI Hub through the Africa Biosciences Challenge Fund (ABCF) program (02/RF/18/4857).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Almaz N, Admasu T, Treuren RV, Visser B (2002) AFLP analysis of enset clonal diversity in south and southwestern Ethiopia for conservation. Crop Sci 42:1105–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker RED, Simmonds NW (1953) The genus ensete in Africa. Kew Bull 8:405–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Birmeta G, Nybom H, Bekele E (2002) RAPD analysis of genetic diversity among clones of the Ethiopian crop plant Ensete ventricosum. Euphytica 124(3):315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Birmeta G, Nybom H, Bekele E (2004) Distinction between wild and cultivated Enset (Ensete ventricosum) gene pools in Ethiopia using RAPD markers. Hereditas 140:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bizuayehu T (2002) Studies on landrace diversity in-vivo and in-vitro regeneration of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw.). Dissertation, Humbolkt University, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  6. Bobosha K (2003) Characterization of Xanthomonas campestis Pv. musacearum isolates: causal agent of enset bacterial wilt disease. MSc Thesis, Addis Ababa University, EthiopiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Brandt SA, Spring A, Hiebisch C, McCabe JT, Tabogie E, Diro M, Wolde-Michael G, Ynttso G, Shigeta M, Tesfaye S (1997) The tree against hunger. Enset based agricultural systems in Ethiopia. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  8. Central Statistical Authority (CSA) (2010) Area, production and yield of crops for private peasant holdings for meher season 2009/2010. Addis Ababa, EthiopiaGoogle Scholar
  9. Earl DA, von Holdt BM (2012) Structure harvester: a website and program for visualizing STRUCTURE output and implementing the Evanno method. Conserv Genet Resour 4(2):359–361.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12686-011-9548-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fetta N (2007) Diversity and indigenous management of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Cheesman) in Gurage Zone, Ethiopia. MSc Thesis, Hawassa University, EthiopiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Getachew S, Firew M, Belayneh A, Segenet K, Sisay K, Kefyalew N, Djikeng A, Nzuki I (2014) A look into genetic diversity of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) using transferable microsatellite sequences of banana in Ethiopia. Crop Improv 28(2):159–183.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15427528.2013.861889 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jakobsson M, Rosenberg NA (2007) CLUMPP: a cluster matching and permutation program for dealing with label switching and multimodality in analysis of population structure. Bioinformatics 23:1801–1806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jombart T (2008) Adegenet: R package for the multivariate analysis of genetic markers. Bioinformatics 24:1403–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kalinowski ST (2002) How many alleles per locus should be used to estimate genetic distances? Hered 88:62–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kalinowski ST (2005) HP-Rare 1.0: a computer program for performing rarefaction on measures of allelic diversity. Mol Ecol Notes 5:187–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lagoda PJL, Noyer JL, Dambier D, Baurens FC, Grapin A, Lanaud C (1998) Sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers in the Musaceae. Mol Ecol 7:657–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Negash A, Tsegaye A, van Treuren R, Visser B (2002) AFLP analysis of enset clonal diversity in south and southwestern Ethiopia for conservation. Crop Sci 42:1105–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nei M (1972) Genetic distance between populations. Am Nat 106(949):283–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nei M (1987) Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Olango TM, Tesfaye B, Catellani M, Pè ME (2014) Indigenous knowledge, use and on-farm management of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) diversity in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 10:41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Olango TM, Tesfaye B, Pagnotta MA, Pè ME, Catellani M (2015) Development of SSR markers and genetic diversity analysis in enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman), an orphan food security crop from Southern Ethiopia. BMC Genet 16:98.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12863-015-0250-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Peakall R, Smouse PE (2012) GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research—an update. Bioinformatics 28:2537–2539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peregrine WTH, Bridge J (1992) The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus goodeyi, an important pest of enset in Ethiopia. Trop Pest Manag 38:325–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Perrier X, Flori A, Bonnot F (2003) Data analysis methods. In: Hamon P, Seguin M, Perrier X, Glaszmann JC (eds) Genetic diversity of cultivated tropical plants. Enfield Science Publishers, Montpellier, pp 43–76Google Scholar
  25. Prabakaran A, Paramasivam K, Rajesh T, Rajarajan D (2010) Molecular characterization of rice landraces using SSR markers. J Plant Breed 1(4):512–516Google Scholar
  26. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multi locus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959 PMID: 10835412 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Ramasamy RK, Ramasamy S, Bindroo BB, Naik VG (2014) Structure plot: a program for drawing elegant STRUCTURE bar plots in user friendly interface. Springer Plus 3:431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Storchova H, Hrdlickorva R, Chrtek J, Tetera M, Fitze D, Fehrer J (2000) An improved method of DNA isolation from plants collected in the field and conserved in saturated NaCL/CTAB solution. Taxon 48:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Taye B (1993) An overview on enset research and future technological needs for enhancing its production and utilization. In: Tsedeke A, Hibisch K, Brandt S (eds) Proceeding of the first international workshop on enset. IAR, Addis Ababa, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  30. Tenaye A, Geta E (2009) Analysis of vulnerability and determinants of enset production in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia. Acta Hortic 806:663–668.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2009.806.82 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tesfaye B, Ludders P (2003) Diversity and distribution patterns of enset landraces in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. Genet Res Crop Evol 50:359–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tobiaw DC, Bekele E (2011) Analysis of genetic diversity among cultivated enset (Ensete ventricosum) populations from Essera and Kefficho, southwestern part of Ethiopia using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) marker. Afr J Biotechnol 70:15697–15709Google Scholar
  33. Tomlinson PB (1969) Anatomy of monocotyledons. III. Commelinales-Zingiberales. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  34. Tsegaye A, Struik P (2002) Analysis of enset (Ensete ventricosum) indigenous production methods and farm-based biodiversity in major enset growing regions of southern Ethiopia. Exp Agric 38(3):291–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Worku N (1996) The Gurage perception of enset. In: Tsedeke et al. Enset based sustainable agriculture in Ethiopia. Institute of Agricultural research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp 121–131Google Scholar
  36. Wright S (1951) The genetical structure of populations. Ann Eugen 15:323–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yemataw Z, Tawle K, Blomme G, Jacobsen K (2018) Traditional enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) sucker propagation methods and opportunities for crop improvement. Int J Trop Subtrop Hortic 73(6):342–348Google Scholar
  38. Zippel K (2002) Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesm.) In subsistence farming systems in Ethiopia. In: Conference on international agricultural resources for development, Deutscher Tropentag, Witzenhausen, GermanyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Disease Diagnostics LabJimma UniversityJimmaEthiopia
  2. 2.Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) HubNairobiKenya
  3. 3.International Institute of Tropical AgricultureIbadanNigeria
  4. 4.School of Plant and HorticultureHawassa UniversityHawassaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations