Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 66, Issue 7, pp 1573–1586 | Cite as

On the diversity and origin of the barley complex agriocrithon inferred by iPBS transposon markers

  • Georgi BonchevEmail author
  • Roman Dušinský
  • Pavol Hauptvogel
  • Katarína Gaplovská-Kyselá
  • Miroslav Švec
Research Article


The six-rowed barley with brittle rachis Hordeum agriocrithon A.E. Åberg is a diverse taxon connected with the evolution and domestication processes in the genus Hordeum. However, the origin and patterns of taxonomic divergence of this barley type is still hotly disputed. Here we utilized inter-primer binding site (iPBS) retrotransposon marker analysis to assess the genetic diversity of the complex taxonomic group H. agriocrithon in reference to the other two main barley taxa H. spontaneum K. Koch and H. vulgare L.. Based on selected iPBS primers, we demonstrated that the long-term process of natural evolution and human-driven domestication have influenced the dynamics of the TE fraction of the barley genome. iPBS markers reliably differentiated at molecular level the three main Hordeum taxa but also revealed genetic and phenotypic diversity patterns at within taxon level. Although H. agriocrithon can be considered as an autochthonous species due to its genetic divergence from H. spontaneum and H. vulgare, our results have shown that most of representatives of this taxon are of hybrid origin and hybridization events have shaped its highly heterogeneous genetic structure. Furthermore, our results strongly support the notion that H. spontaneum accessions are ancestors of the H. agriocrithon subgroup paradoxon and that the Caspian sea region is the likely place of initial cultivation and domestication of the six-rowed barley.


Inter-primer binding site Transposable elements Genetic diversity Origin of six-rowed barley Domestication Evolution 



This work was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship grant to Dr. Georgi Bonchev (National Scholarship Programme of the Slovak Republic) and by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the Contract Nos. APVV-0661-10 and APVV-15-0156.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10722_2019_814_MOESM1_ESM.eps (4.1 mb)
Supplementary Figure 1 Example iPBS fingerprints of H. agriocrithon accessions obtained using oligonucleotide primers 2224, 2374 and 2378 (EPS 4194 kb)
10722_2019_814_MOESM2_ESM.eps (520 kb)
Supplementary Figure 2 Patterns of band dynamics in the three barley taxa and within the agriocrithon group based on iPBS molecular data from primers 2374 and 2378. The estimated parameters are number of amplified loci (Nal), number of loci with fixed bands (Lfb), percentage of polymorphic loci (%) and average band frequencies (bf). In each panel, H. agriocrithon is subdivided into sub-groups agriocrithon (agr), dawoense (daw) and paradoxon (par) (EPS 519 kb)
10722_2019_814_MOESM3_ESM.doc (81 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOC 81 kb)
10722_2019_814_MOESM4_ESM.xls (34 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (XLS 34 kb)
10722_2019_814_MOESM5_ESM.xls (294 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (XLS 293 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georgi Bonchev
    • 1
    Email author
  • Roman Dušinský
    • 2
  • Pavol Hauptvogel
    • 3
  • Katarína Gaplovská-Kyselá
    • 2
  • Miroslav Švec
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Genome Dynamics and StabilityInstitute of Plant Physiology and GeneticsSofiaBulgaria
  2. 2.Department of Genetics, Faculty of Natural SciencesComenius UniversityBratislava 4Slovakia
  3. 3.National Agricultural and Food Centre - Research Institute of Plant ProductionPiestanySlovakia

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