Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 66, Issue 8, pp 1843–1859 | Cite as

Diversity analysis and trait association study for antioxidants and quality traits in landraces, farmers’ varieties and commercial varieties of Indian short day garlic (Allium sativum L.)

  • Rakshya Bhusal
  • Sabina IslamEmail author
  • Anil Khar
  • Shrawan Singh
  • Neelu Jain
  • B. S. Tomar
Research Article


Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is the second most important Allium crop throughout the world, used raw, cooked, processed or an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. It is one of the richest sources of total phenolics among the usually consumed vegetables. Indian garlic is indispensable item of globally famous and savoured traditional Indian cuisine. The genotypes grown are mostly short-day type, soft-neck with greater storage ability. Apart from dry bulbs, green garlic leaves are widely consumed in India. In the absence of sexual mode of reproduction, the development of new varieties is limited compared to other Alliums and breeding effort is focused on selection of elite clones from the available genetic resources. The aim of the present study was to (1) study the variations for antioxidants and antioxidant activities in leaf and clove samples of different accessions and (2) study the trait association and diversity in the collection for further selection. Antioxidant compounds were higher in cloves while green leaves were superior for antioxidant activity with variations in few lines. Commercial variety G-323 was found superior for leaf antioxidant activity and clove antioxidant content. Farmers’ variety scored higher for total soluble solids while breeding lines scored better for pungency. Total soluble solids and pungency mostly had negative association with antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity. The diversity was independent of geographic region and status of selection (varieties, landraces and farmers’ varieties). The quality trait improvement effort should focus on medium TSS and pungent varieties for greater health benefits.


Garlic Quality traits Landrace Farmers’ variety Varieties Diversity and trait selection 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rakshya Bhusal
    • 1
  • Sabina Islam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anil Khar
    • 1
  • Shrawan Singh
    • 1
  • Neelu Jain
    • 2
  • B. S. Tomar
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Vegetable ScienceICAR- Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Division of GeneticsICAR- Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

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