Glycoconjugate Journal

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 421–432 | Cite as

Peptidoglycan in Mycobacteria: chemistry, biology and intervention

  • Tripti Raghavendra
  • Saniya Patil
  • Raju MukherjeeEmail author


Peptidoglycan, a major glycoconjugate in the mycobacterial cell envelope provides strength to resist osmotic stress and plays a pivotal role in maintaining the cellular morphology. Several unique growth stage specific structural alterations occur in its constituent monosaccharides and peptides that allow Mycobacterium to survive nutrient starvation and environmental stress. Here, we discuss the enzymes involved in its intricate biosynthesis that are novel targets for therapeutic intervention and provide an opportunity for potential antibiotic adjuvants. We also revisit the enzymatic steps which are critical for maintaining the equilibrium between peptidoglycan synthesis and hydrolysis during cellular growth and division specifically focused on the importance of cell wall remodelling during “exit from dormancy” in Mycobacterium, a phenomenon with tremendous physiological and therapeutic importance for intervention in mycobacterial infections.


Tuberculosis Cell envelope Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis Remodeling 



SP thanks IISER, Tirupati for research fellowship. RM thanks DBT, Govt. of India and IISER, Tirupati for research support. RM is a recipient of Early Career Research Award from SERB, Govt. of India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tripti Raghavendra
    • 1
  • Saniya Patil
    • 1
  • Raju Mukherjee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiologyIndian Institute of Science Education and Research, TirupatiTirupatiIndia

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