Climatology of Transient Luminous Events and Lightning Observed Above Europe and the Mediterranean Sea

  • Enrico ArnoneEmail author
  • József Bór
  • Olivier Chanrion
  • Veronika Barta
  • Stefano Dietrich
  • Carl-Fredrik Enell
  • Thomas Farges
  • Martin Füllekrug
  • Antti Kero
  • Roberto Labanti
  • Antti Mäkelä
  • Keren Mezuman
  • Anna Odzimek
  • Martin Popek
  • Marco Prevedelli
  • Marco Ridolfi
  • Serge Soula
  • Diego Valeri
  • Oscar van der Velde
  • Yoav Yair
  • Ferruccio Zanotti
  • Przemyslaw Zoladek
  • Torsten Neubert


In 1999, the first sprites were observed above European thunderstorms using sensitive cameras. Since then, Eurosprite campaigns have been conducted to observe sprites and other transient luminous events (TLEs), expanding into a network covering large parts of Europe and coastal areas. In 2009 through 2013, the number of optical observations of TLEs reached a peak of 2000 per year. Because of this unprecedented number of European observations, it was possible to construct a climatology of 8394 TLEs observed above 1018 thunderstorm systems and study for the first time their distribution and seasonal cycle above Europe and parts of the Mediterranean Sea. The number of TLEs per thunderstorm was found to follow a power law, with less than 10 TLEs for 801 thunderstorms and up to 195 TLEs above the most prolific one. The majority of TLEs were classified as sprites, 641 elves, 280 halos, 70 upward lightning, 2 blue jets and 1 gigantic jet. The climatology shows intense TLE activity during summer over continental areas and in late autumn over coastal areas and sea. The two seasons peak, respectively, in August and November, separated by March and April with almost no TLEs, and a relative minimum around September. The observed TLE activity, i.e. mostly sprites, is shown to be largely consistent with lightning activity, with a 1/1000 of observed TLE-to-lightning ratio in regions with most observations. The overall behaviour is consistent among individual years, making the observed seasonal cycle a robust general feature of TLE activity above Europe.


Thunderstorms Lightning Transient luminous events Ground-based observations Europe Climatology 



This work was supported within activities of the ESF TEA-IS and ESA-ASIM mission. E.A. acknowledges the support by ESA for the project CHIMTEA within the framework of the Changing Earth Science Network Initiative. Observations of TLEs made by S.S. were partly sponsored by the National Institute of Universe Science (INSU) thanks to LEFE/IMAGO and by the National Centre of Space Studies (CNES). ILAN observations are supported by Israel Science Foundation Grant 117/09, and this research was supported by the Israeli Science Foundation, Grant 145/03. The authors wish to thank the World Wide Lightning Location Network (, a collaboration among over 50 universities and institutions, for providing the lightning location data used in this paper. The authors are grateful for the essential contributions of all individual observers through their dedication, work on instrumentation and successful observations, particularly to: for IMTN, R. Cabassi, N. Conti, M. Morini, M. Silvestri (CIPH), P. Demaria (Ass. Astrofili Bisalta), L. Barbieri (Ass. Astrofili Bolognesi), M. Mannucci, N. Montigiani (Ass. Astrofili Fiorentini), M. Vivarelli (Gr. Astrofili Montagna Pistoiese), G. Ascione, P. Russo (SkySentinel), S. Eugeni (ANAI), L. Lamacchia (SAIt Puglia), I, Cervini, D. Belfiore, R. Manganelli, T. Maggioni, M. Menichini, M. Morini, F. Palmieri, E. Richetti, A. Severi, S. Sposetti, P. Venturi and all other IMTN node managers; J. Monari (IRA INAF); M. Eltri, E. Stomeo (Unione Astrofili Italiani, Sez. Meteore); D. Cataldi, G. Cataldi (LTPA Observer Project); Z. Andrei (CMN); K. Polakowski, H. Krygiel, J. Laskowski, P. Zareba, J. Baran, M. Maciejewski, T. Krzyzanowski, M. Reszelski (PFN); J. Tóth (Comenius University / SVMN); M. Korošec; R. Spinner. Part of above mentioned networks are now within EDMONd multi-national network. TLE observations at Gliwice, Poland, have been performed voluntarily by M. Mielniczek. The ILAN winter campaigns in Israel were dedicated to the memory of the first Israeli astronaut and sprite observer Col. Ilan Ramon, who died together with the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 on 1 February 2003.


Funding was provided by Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (Grant No. OTKA: K72474), European Cooperation in Science and Technology (Grant No. AP-18: The Physics of Lightning Flash and Its Effects) and European Commission H2020 (Grant No. H2020-MSCA-ITN-2016 no. 722337). Contribution from Hungary was supported by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office, Hungary-NKFIH (K115836). The establishment of the TLE observation site Sopron, Hungary and scientific communication was facilitated by COST Actions P-18, ‘The Physics of Lightning Flash and Its Effects’, and CA15211, ‘ELECTRONET’. The work of MF is supported by the Royal Society (UK) Grant NMG/R1/180252 and the Natural Environment Research Council (UK) under Grants NE/L012669/1 and NE/H024921/1. A.O. acknowledges support from Grants of Poland Ministry of Science and Higher Education to Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, No. 3841/E-41/S/2018. TLE observations from Swider, Poland, have been supported by earlier Grants Nos. 3841/E-41/S/2012 to 3841/E-41/S/2015. The work of M.P. was supported by the GACR Grant 17-07027S and by the Praemium Academiae award of the CAS.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enrico Arnone
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • József Bór
    • 3
  • Olivier Chanrion
    • 4
  • Veronika Barta
    • 3
  • Stefano Dietrich
    • 2
  • Carl-Fredrik Enell
    • 5
  • Thomas Farges
    • 6
  • Martin Füllekrug
    • 7
  • Antti Kero
    • 8
  • Roberto Labanti
    • 9
  • Antti Mäkelä
    • 10
  • Keren Mezuman
    • 11
    • 12
  • Anna Odzimek
    • 13
  • Martin Popek
    • 14
  • Marco Prevedelli
    • 15
  • Marco Ridolfi
    • 15
    • 16
  • Serge Soula
    • 17
  • Diego Valeri
    • 18
  • Oscar van der Velde
    • 19
  • Yoav Yair
    • 20
  • Ferruccio Zanotti
    • 9
  • Przemyslaw Zoladek
    • 21
  • Torsten Neubert
    • 4
  1. 1.Dipartimento di FisicaUniversità di TorinoTurinItaly
  2. 2.Istituto di Scienza dell’Atmosfera e del Clima – CNRTurinItaly
  3. 3.Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, GGIHungarian Academy of SciencesSopronHungary
  4. 4.DTU SpaceTechnical University of DenmarkKongens LyngbyDenmark
  5. 5.EISCAT Scientific AssociationKirunaSweden
  6. 6.CEA, DAM, DIFArpajonFrance
  7. 7.Department of Electronic and Electrical EngineeringUniversity of BathBathUK
  8. 8.Sodankylä Geophysical ObservatoryUniversity of OuluSodankyläFinland
  9. 9.Italian Meteor and TLE Network (IMTN)BolognaItaly
  10. 10.Finnish Meteorological InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  11. 11.Earth and Environmental SciencesColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  12. 12.NASA Goddard Institute for Space StudiesNew YorkUSA
  13. 13.Institute of GeophysicsPolish Academy of SciencesWarsawPoland
  14. 14.Department of Space Physics, Station Nýdek, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsCASPragueCzech Republic
  15. 15.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  16. 16.Istituto Nazionale di Ottica - CNRFlorenceItaly
  17. 17.Laboratory of AerologyUniversity of Toulouse/CNRSToulouseFrance
  18. 18.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sapienza, Università di RomaRomeItaly
  19. 19.Universitat Politecnica de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain
  20. 20.School of SustainabilityInterdisciplinary Center (IDC) HerzliyaHerzliyaIsrael
  21. 21.Comets and Meteors WorkshopWarsawPoland

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