pp 1–30 | Cite as

Analysis of eve-teasing potential zones using geospatial technologies and AHP: a study in Midnapore town, West Bengal, India

  • Priyanka BiswasEmail author
  • Kousik Das
  • Nilanjana Das Chatterjee


Application of geospatial technologies in criminological study is most relevant in present day context. Crime mapping with the help of Geographical Information System is being a very useful tool for the law enforcement agencies to make proper visualization and take strategic modus operandi to reduce criminal offence. “Eveteasing” in public places by men is one of the very common social issue exist in Indian society. Despite new laws and other measures of increased surveillance after ‘Nirvaya Case’, India, sexual harassment against women has continue and increased. More and more engaged in education sector, employment sector may provide opportunities to the offender to tease women in public place in roads, trains and buses everyday even in broad day light. Such public nuisance sometimes results in shocking consequence like acid attacks and rape. Present study tries to apply contemporary approaches and uses geospatial tools for spatial analysis and mapping of potential eve-teasing prone areas, its severity and potential risk factors in selected urban area. The study also focuses on offenders’ decision making strategies to commit crime. ‘Rapid Assessment Methodology’ has been applied to the young school and college going female students and working women to understand the nature and pattern of eve-teasing in the selected urban area. We run explanatory factor analysis to identify potential risk factors and thereafter apply Analytical Hierarchy Process to identify which potential risk factors responsible for enhancing an area to be an eve-teasing prone area by examining issues within socio-environmental perspectives and do crime mapping using Geographical Information System and provide some Crime Prevention measures for the stakeholders. This study has larger implications for crime prevention in public places and enhanced policy making process to alleviate such social nuisance.


Eve-teasing Geospatial tools Rapid Assessment Explanatory factor analysis Analytical Hierarchy Process Decision making Geographical Information System Crime mapping 



We would like to give our hearty gratitude to Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR, File No. Sc-2/ICSSR/2016-17/RPS) for funding this research work. We are also thankful to the students of Geography department, Vidyasagar University for their great assistance during intense survey.

Author contribution

Dr. Nilanjana Das Chatterjee is our research guide. She is expertise in criminological field. The entire work has been done under her supervision. She has substantial contributions in making conceptions and designing of the manuscript, data analysis and interpretation of results. We are thankful for her regardless contribution in this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that we have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. Adams, K., Hean, S., Sturgis, P., & Clark, J. M. (2006). Investigating the factors influencing professional identity of first-year health and social care students. Learning in Health and Social Care,5(2), 55–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad, A., Uddin, M. M., & Goparaju, L. (2017). Role of Geospatial technology in Crime Mapping: A perspective view of India. World Scientific News,88(2), 211–226.Google Scholar
  3. Ahmadi, H., Esmaili, A., Fayznia, S., & Shariat, J. M. (2003). Zonation of the mass movements using multivariate regression (MR) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods, a case study Germy Chai Watershed. Natural Resources of IRAN,56(4), 323–336.Google Scholar
  4. Akhtar, C. (2013). Eve teasing as a form of violence against women: A case study of District Srinagar, Kashmir. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology,5(5), 168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akhter, Z. (2013). Eve teasing, tears of the girls: Bangladesh Open University towards women empowerment. International Women Online Journal of Distance Education,2(4), 1–3.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin,103(3), 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Armstrong, S. (1994). Rape in South Africa: An invisible part of apartheid’s legacy. Gender & Development,2(2), 35–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baron, L., & Straus, M. A. (1989). Rape and its relation to social disorganization, pornography and inequality in the USA. Medicine & Law,8(3) 209–232.Google Scholar
  9. Baxi, P. (2001). Sexual harassment. In SEMINAR-NEW DELHI- 505 (pp. 54–59). Retrieved on November 12, 2017. Available at:
  10. Bénéï, V. (2013). Craig Jeffrey, timepass: Youth, class, and the politics of waiting in India. Stanford University Press, 232 pp. ISSN 1960-6060.Google Scholar
  11. Biswas, P., & Chatterjee, N. D. (2017). Spatial distributional pattern of eve-teasing in urban area; Mapping for security, safety and prevention—A case study of Asansol Municipal Area, West Bengal, India. Indian Cartographer, 37, 127–135. ISSN 0927-8392.Google Scholar
  12. Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1997). Statistics notes: Cronbach’s alpha. Bmj,314(7080), 572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (Eds.). (1981). Environmental criminology (pp. 27–54). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  14. Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1984). Patterns in crime. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  15. Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1998). Environmental criminology: From theory to urban planning practice. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention,7(1), 31–60.Google Scholar
  16. Brantingham, P. L., & Brantingham, P. L. (1993). Environment, routine and situation: Toward a pattern theory of crime. Advances in Criminological Theory,5(2), 259–294.Google Scholar
  17. Britt, C. L. (1997). Reconsidering the unemployment and crime relationship: Variation by age group and historical period. Journal of Quantitative Criminology,13(4), 405–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bursik, R. J., & Grasmick, H. (1993). Neighborhoods and crime: The dimensions of effective social control. New York: Lexington.Google Scholar
  19. Byrne, J. M., & Sampson, R. J. (Eds.). (1986). The social ecology of crime (pp. 1–22). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Census of India. (2011). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved on November 22, 2017. Available at:
  21. Clarke, R. V. (1995). Situational crime prevention. Crime and Justice,19, 91–150. Scholar
  22. Clarke, R. V. G. (Ed.). (1997). Situational crime prevention (pp. 53–70). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review,44(4), 588–608. Scholar
  24. Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (2003). Opportunities, precipitators and criminal decisions: A reply to Wortley’s critique of situational crime prevention. Crime Prevention Studies,16, 41–96.Google Scholar
  25. Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (Eds.). (2014). The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  26. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika,16(3), 297–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crouch, M. (2009). Sexual harassment in public places. Social Philosophy Today,25, 137–148. Scholar
  28. Das, R. (2015). Sexual harassment at college level-an ongoing gender issue: A study on some colleges of Purba Medinipur under Vidysagar University. International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences,5(7), 32–45.Google Scholar
  29. Dhillon, M., & Bakaya, S. (2014). Street harassment: A qualitative study of the experiences of young women in Delhi. Sage Open,4(3), 2158244014543786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. District wise Crime against Women. (2015). Open government data. Government of India. Retrieved on January 16, 2018. Available at:
  31. Dobash, R. E., & Dobash, R. P. (Eds.). (1998). Rethinking violence against women (Vol. 9). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  32. Donner, H. (2012). Between the verandah and the mall: Fieldwork and the spaces of femininity. In I. Pardo & G. B. Prato (Eds.), Anthropology in the city: Methodology and theory (pp. 173–190). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Ellsberg, M. C., Heise, L. (2005). Researching violence against women: Practical guidelines for researchers and activists. Washington DC: World Health Organization. ISBN 92 4 154647 6.Google Scholar
  34. Esmail, A. M., Penny, J., & Eargle, L. A. (2013). The impact of culture on crime. Race, Gender & Class, 20(1–2), 326–343.Google Scholar
  35. Fairchild, K., & Rudman, L. A. (2008). Everyday stranger harassment and women’s objectification. Social Justice Research,21(3), 338–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Faizal, F., & Rajagopalan, S. (Eds.). (2005). Women, security, South Asia: A clearing in the thicket. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications India.Google Scholar
  37. Felson, M. (1998). Crime and everyday life: Impact and implications for society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
  38. Field, A. (2000). Discovering statistics using SPSS for windows. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  39. Gadekar, U. (2016). Eve teasing and its psychosocial influence among the adolescent girls. International Journal of Current Advanced Research,5(6), 1028–1031.Google Scholar
  40. Gangoli, G. (2007). Indian feminisms: Law patriarchies and feminism in India (pp. 10–12). Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited, Print.Google Scholar
  41. Ghosh, S. (1990). Discrimination against the female child. Indian Journal of Maternal and Child Health,1(4), 104–108.Google Scholar
  42. Gilbertson, A. (2014). A Fine Balance: Negotiating fashion and respectable femininity in middle-class Hyderabad, India. Modern Asian Studies,48(1), 120–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Greco, S., Figueira, J., & Ehrgott, M. (2005). Multiple criteria decision analysis. Springer’s International series. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  44. Harker, P. T., & Vargas, L. G. (1987). The theory of ratio scale estimation: Saaty’s analytic hierarchy process. Management Science,33(11), 1383–1403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hasan, F. (2016). Fear as a barrier to outdoor participation: Woman negotiating fear of outdoor-violence in Dhaka City. Social Sciences International Research Journal. ISSN 2395-0544.Google Scholar
  46. Hlavka, H. R. (2014). Normalizing sexual violence: Young women account for harassment and abuse. Gender & Society,28(3), 337–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hoque, M. A. (2013). Eve teasing in Bangladesh: Causes and impact on society, a study from Islamic perspective. The International Journal of Social Sciences,15(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  48. Johnson, M. L. (2003). Lose something? Ways to find your missing data. Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies Professional Development Series, 17-09. In R. L. Presti, E. Barca, & G. Passarella (2010). A methodology for treating missing data applied to daily rainfall data in the Candelaro River Basin (Italy). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 160(1–4), 1.Google Scholar
  49. Kalra, G., & Bhugra, D. (2013). Sexual violence against women: Understanding cross-cultural intersections. Indian Journal of Psychiatry,55(3), 244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaplan, H. M., O’Kane, K. C., Lavrakas, P. J., & Pesce, E. J. (1978). Crime prevention through environmental design: Final report on commercial demonstration, Portland, Oregon. Arlington: Westinghouse Electrical Corporation.Google Scholar
  51. Lee, W. B., Lau, H., Liu, Z. Z., & Tam, S. (2001). A fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approach in modular product design. Expert Systems,18(1), 32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leitner, M. (Ed.). (2013). Crime modeling and mapping using geospatial technologies (Vol. 8). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  53. Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology,22(140), 1–55.Google Scholar
  54. Mahadevia, D., Mishra, A., Hazarika, A., Joseph, Y., & Borah, T. (2016). Safe mobility for women, case of Guwahati (p. 33). CUE working paper.Google Scholar
  55. Mathur, S., Malhotra, A., & Mehta, M. (2001). Adolescent girls’ life aspirations and reproductive health in Nepal. Reproductive Health Matters,9(17), 91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McDonald, D. (2005). A rapid situation assessment of drug use in Papua New Guinea. Drug and Alcohol Review,24(1), 79–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mishra, A. D., & Yadav, S. (2003). Gender issues in India: Some reflections. New Delhi: Radha Publication.Google Scholar
  58. Mohammadi, J., Shariat, S. J. S., & Parhiz, F. (2012). Investigation on spatial patterns of crime against women case study: Street offences in Zanjan. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences,2(12), 51.Google Scholar
  59. Mohanty, R. I. (2013, April 21). The term ‘eve teasing’must die. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on November 15, 2017. Available at:
  60. Nahar, P., Van Reeuwijk, M., & Reis, R. (2013). Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Reproductive Health Matters,21(41), 78–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Natarajan, M. (2016). Rapid assessment of “eve teasing” (sexual harassment) of young women during the commute to college in India. Crime Science,5(1), 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. NCRB (National Crime Record Bureau). (2016). Crime in India report. Retrieved on February 26, 2018. Available at:
  63. Needle, R., Kroeger, K., Belani, H., Achrekar, A., Parry, C. D., & Dewing, S. (2008). Sex, drugs, and HIV: Rapid assessment of HIV risk behaviors among street-based drug using sex workers in Durban, South Africa. Social Science & Medicine,67(9), 1447–1455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York, NY: McGrawHiIl.Google Scholar
  65. O’Hare, E. A., & O’Donohue, W. (1998). Sexual harassment: Identifying risk factors. Archives of Sexual Behavior,27(6), 561–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Prakash, R. (2017). CCTV grabs show beasts that roamed Bengaluru roads. The Times of India, TNN Updated: Jan 4, 2017, 04:30 PM IST. Retrieved on January 14, 2018. Available at:
  67. Ramasubramanian, S., & Oliver, M. B. (2003). Portrayals of sexual violence in popular Hindi films, 1997–99. Sex Roles,48(7–8), 327–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rashid, M. (2007, September 30). Letting eve-teasing go unpunished. The Daily Star. Retrieved on July 25, 2017. Available at:
  69. Saaty, T. L. (1980). The analytic hierarchy process. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill International.Google Scholar
  70. Saaty, T. L. (1990). How to make a decision: The analytic hierarchy process. European Journal of Operational Research,48(1), 9–26. Scholar
  71. Saaty, T. L. (2008). Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. International Journal of Services Sciences,1(1), 83–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Saaty, T. L., & Vargas, L. G. (2012). Models, methods, concepts and applications of the analytic hierarchy process (Vol. 175). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Satty, T. L. (1980). The analytical hierarchy process: Planning, priority setting, resource allocation. Pittsburg: RWS Publication.Google Scholar
  74. Shamsuddin, N. H. M., bin Othman, M. S., & bin Selamat, M. H. (2012). Identifying of potential crime area using analytical hierachy process (AHP) and geographical information system (GIS). International Journal of innovative computing,2(1), 15–22.Google Scholar
  75. Short, J. F. (1997). Poverty, ethnicity, and violent crime. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  76. Singh, A. K., & Singh, K. V. (2010). A study on the problem of eve teasing in India. International Research Journal of Social Sciences,3(2), 205–229.Google Scholar
  77. Stein, N. (2011). National summit on gender-based violence among young people. Wellesley Canters for Women, Arlington, Virginia (vol. 35, pp. 1–137). Retrieved on November 22, 2017. Available at:
  78. Stimson, G. V., Donoghoe, M. C., Fitch, C., Rhodes, T. J., & Ball, A. (2003). Rapid assessment and response technical guide. TG-RAR Version 1.0.Google Scholar
  79. Suhr, D. D. (2006). Exploratory or confirmatory factor analysis? (pp. 1–17). Cary: SAS Institute.Google Scholar
  80. Talboys, S. L., Kaur, M., VanDerslice, J., Gren, L. H., Bhattacharya, H., & Alder, S. C. (2017). What is eve teasing? A mixed methods study of sexual harassment of young women in the rural Indian context. Sage Open,7(1), 2158244017697168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang, F. (Ed.). (2005). Geographic information systems and crime analysis. Hershey: IGI Global.Google Scholar
  82. Wilcox, P., Land, K. C., & Hunt, S. A. (2003). Criminal circumstance: A dynamic multi-contextual criminal opportunity theory. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and Environment ManagementVidyasagar UniversityMidnaporeIndia

Personalised recommendations