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Mapping groundwater potential zones using remote sensing and GIS approach in Jammu Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir

  • Junaid QadirEmail author
  • M. Sultan Bhat
  • Akhtar Alam
  • Irfan Rashid


Locating potential groundwater zones is becoming more convenient, cost-effective than invasive methods and efficient with the advent of high-resolution satellite imagery. In the present study, remote sensing and geographic information system has been integrated together for delineation of groundwater potential zones in Jammu Himalaya to generate various thematic layers using weighted overlay analysis. Various thematic layers such as (slope, Topographic Position Index, Topographic Wetness Index, geology, drainage density, lineament density and land use land cover) were integrated and appropriate weights were assigned to each class. Based on the generated groundwater potential map, about 26% of the study area falls in high category zone, 27.27% fall in moderate, 28.72% fall in low and 18% very low category zones. Furthermore, annual replenishable groundwater status for the year 2004, 2009, 2011 and 2013 was estimated as 85077 (ha m), 93133 (ha m), 130102 (ha m) and 123264 (ha m) respectively and the net groundwater availability for the year 2004, 2009, 2011 and 2013 was estimated as 76569 (ha m), 83819 (ha m), 117092 (ha m) and 110254 (ha m) respectively. The stage of groundwater development in the Jammu Himalaya was calculated 17.62% for the year 2004, 22.84% for the year 2009, 18.36% for the year 2011 and 26.26% for the year 2013 with no significant decline of water levels hence the Jammu Himalaya is categorized as ‘Safe’ for future groundwater development.


Groundwater potential zone Weighted overlay analysis Remote sensing GIS Jammu Himalaya 



Authors would like to thank Earth Explorer (USGS), India WRIS web portal, CGWB India, and funding agency Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India.


National Mission on Himalayan Studies (NMHS) G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development funded by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India (NMHS Fellowship Grant ID: GBPI/NMHS/HF/RA/2015-16).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

This study is in full compliance with all applicable ethical standards.

Ethical Approval

This research paper does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Each author contributed to the research in terms of conception, research design, cross-checking data analysis and co-writing the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and Regional DevelopmentUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia

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