An Experimental Study on Leaching in Gypseous Soil Subjected to Triaxial Loading

  • Abbas J. Al-TaieEmail author
  • Bushra S. Albusoda
  • Saad F. I. Alabdullah
  • Ahmad J. Dabdab
Original Paper


Gypseous soil is one of the important high salt content soils in aired and semiarid areas. The failure problems of this soil occur due to the softening of soil and the dissolution of gypsum during leaching (if the flow is continuous). A significant lack of knowledge existed in this research area regarding the effects of leaching on the engineering properties and behavior of gypseous soil in both natural and treated conditions. In this paper, a series of consolidated drained triaxial permeability-leaching tests, under isotropic compression considering three confining pressures (i.e. 100, 200 and 300 kPa), has been carried out to study the effect of leaching on the geotechnical properties and behavior of gypseous soil. A high gypsum content sand soil with little fines was used in this study. Besides, dihydrate calcium chloride was used as an additive to improve the geotechnical properties of soil. The chemical additive percentages are 2.5% and 5.0% by weight of the dry soil. According to the test results, upon leaching, a large reduction in the cohesion of natural soil has been recorded, while the angle of internal friction approximately remained constant. Moreover, the natural soil became more compressible when subjected to leaching under isotropic condition. The inclusion of additive led to a reasonable reduction in permeability, leaching strain, and dissolution of gypsum, while, the shear strength parameters of treated soil were unaffected upon leaching.


Gypseous soil Consolidated drained triaxial Isotropic compression Permeability-leaching tests Soil treatment, calcium chloride 



  1. Albusoda BS, Hussein RS (2013) Bearing capacity of eccentrically loaded square foundation on compacted reinforced dune sand over gypseous soil. J Earth Sci Geotech Eng 3(4):47–62Google Scholar
  2. Albusoda BS, Khdeir RA (2018) Mitigation of collapse of gypseous soil by nano- materials. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) 7(2): 1041-1047.
  3. Aldaood A, Bouasker M, Al-Mukhtar M (2014) Geotechnical properties of lime-treated gypseous soils. Appl Clay Sci 88–89:39–48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aldaood A, Bouasker M, Al-Mukhtar M (2015) Effect of long-term soaking and leaching on the behaviour of lime-stabilised gypseous soil. Int J Pavement Eng 16(1):11–26. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alsafi S, Farzadnia N, Asadi A, Huat BK (2017) Collapsibility potential of gypseous soil stabilized with fly ash geopolymer characterization and assessment. Constr Build Mater 137:390–409. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arutyunyan RN (1978) Development of gypsified soils on the basis of buildings and structures in Erevean. Soil Mech Found Eng 15(3):183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arutyunyan RN, Manukyan AJ (1983) Previtation of piping deformation in gypseous soil in Erevean. Soil Mech Found 19(4):151–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asghari S, Ghafoori M, Tabatabai SS (2014) The evaluation of changes in permeability and chemical composition of gypseous soils through leaching in southern Mashhad, Iran. Malays J Civil Eng 26(3):337–348Google Scholar
  9. Asghari S, Ghafoor M, Tabatabai SS (2017) Changes in chemical composition and engineering properties of gypseous soils through leaching: an example from Mashhad Iran. Bull Eng Geol Environ. Google Scholar
  10. Bell FG (2000) Engineering properties of soils and rocks, 4th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  11. Bishop AW, Henkel DJ (1962) The measurement of soil properties in the triaxial test. E. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Boyadgiev TG, Verheye WH (1996) Contribution to a utilitarian classification of gypsiferous soil. Geoderma 74:321–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brand EW, Brenner RP (1981) Soft clay engineering. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  14. Eswaran H, Zi-Tong G (1991) Properties, genesis, classification, and distribution of soils with gypsum. In: Nettleton WD (ed) Occurrence, Characteristics, and Genesis of Carbonates, Gypsum, and Silica Accumulations in Soils, Sp. Pub No. 26. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 89–119Google Scholar
  15. FAO (1990) Management of gypsiferous soils. FAO Soils Bulletin 62, Rome, Italy.
  16. Fattah M, Al-Musawi H, Salman F (2012) Treatment of collapsibility of gypseous soils by dynamic compaction. Geotech Geol Eng 30(6):369–1387. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fookes PC (1978) Middle East-inherent ground problems. Q J Eng Geol 11(1):33–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Head KH (1998) Manual of soil laboratory testing, effective stress tests, 2nd edn. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  19. Herrero J, Hudnall WH, Loomis LE (2012) Gypseous soils and the universal soil taxonomic system, In: IUSS 4th Soil Classification Conference; Lincoln, NEGoogle Scholar
  20. Hoffmann C, Tarantino A (2008) Loading-collapse tests for investigating compressibility and potential collapsibility of embankment coarse well graded material, unsaturated soils: advances in geo-engineering. In: Proceedings of the 1st European Conference on Unsaturated Soils, Durham, UK (ed. Toll, D.G., Augarde, C.E., Gallipoli, D. & Wheeler, S.J.), Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema: 967–972.
  21. Horta JC (1980) Calcrete, Gypcrete and soil classification in Algeria. Eng Geol 15(1–2):15–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hua M, Wang B, Chen L, Wang Y, Quynh VM, He B, Li X (2010) Verification of lime and water glass stabilized FGD gypsum as road sub-base. Fuel 89:1812–1817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iranpour B, haddad A (2016) The influence of nano-materials on collapsible soil treatment. Eng Geol 205:40–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kuttah D, Sato K (2015) Review on the effect of gypsum content on soil behavior. Transp Geotech 4:28–37. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mašín D, Khalili N (2008) Modelling of the collapsible behaviour of unsaturated soils in hypoplasticity, unsaturated soils: advances in geo-engineering. In: Proceedings of the 1st European Conference on Unsaturated Soils, Durham, UK (ed. Toll, D.G., Augarde, C.E., Gallipoli, D. & Wheeler, S.J.), Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema: 659–666.
  26. Mateos AM (1964) Soil lime research at Iowa State University. J Soil Mech Found Eng Div Proc ASCE 90(SM2):127–153Google Scholar
  27. Moret-Fernández D, Herrero J (2015) Effect of gypsum content on soil water retention. J Hydrol 528:122–126. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Murty VR, Praveen GV (2008) Use of chemically stabilized soil as cushion material below light weight structures founded on expansive soil. ASCE J Mater Civil Eng 20(5):392–400. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Namiq LI, Nashat IH (2011) Influence of leaching on volume change of a gypseous soil. Geo-Frontiers Adv Geotech Eng. C:2611–2620Google Scholar
  30. Obika B, Hewish RJ, Fookes PC (1989) Soluble salt damage to thin bituminous road and runway surfaces. Q J Eng Geol 22(1):59–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pearsona MJ, Monteitha SE, Fergusona RR, Hallmarkb CT, Hudnallc WH, Mongerd HC, Reinsche TG, West LT (2015) A method to determine particle size distribution in soils with gypsum. Geoderma 237:318–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Petrukhin VP, Boldirev GV (1978) Investigation of the deformability of gypsofied soils by static load. Soil Mech Found Eng 15:178–182. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Prisciandaro M, Lancia M (2002) Citric acid retarding effect on gypsum nucleation. Chem Eng Trans 2:677–682Google Scholar
  34. Razouki SS (1998) Some solutions to the problem of gypsiferous soils. In: Symposium on the problems of gypseous soils in Iraq. Iraqi Engineers Union, Baghdad, IraqGoogle Scholar
  35. Razouki SS, Kuttah DK (2006) Predicting long-term soaked CBR of gypsiferous subgrade soils. Proc Inst Civ Eng Transport 159(3):135–140Google Scholar
  36. Razouki SS, Kuttah DK, Abood M (2011) Design of gypsiferous fill for hot desert road pavements. Proc Inst Civ Eng Constr Mater 164(1):3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rollins KM, Kim J (2010) Dynamic compaction of collapsible soils based on U.S. Case Histories. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 136(9):1178–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Taha, SA (1979) The effect of leaching on the engineering properties of Qayiara soil. MSc. Thesis, Civil Engineering Department, University of Mosul, IraqGoogle Scholar
  39. Tan TS, Phoon KK, Hight DW, Leroueil S (2007) Characterisation and engineering properties of natural soils. In: Two Volume Set Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Characterisation and Engineering Properties of Natural Soils, Singapore, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK.
  40. Tomlinson MJ (1978) Middle East-highway and airfield pavements. Q J Eng Geol 11(1):65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Warren JK (2016a) Interpreting evaporite textures. In: Evaporites. Springer, Cham.
  42. Warren JK, (2016b) Sabkhas, saline mudflats and pans. In: Evaporites. Springer, Cham.
  43. Yousif AH (2011) Gypseous soil improvement using fuel oil. Engenharia Ambiental Espír i to Santo do Pinhal 8(2):207–215Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abbas J. Al-Taie
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bushra S. Albusoda
    • 2
  • Saad F. I. Alabdullah
    • 3
  • Ahmad J. Dabdab
    • 4
  1. 1.College of EngineeringAl-Nahrain UniversityBaghdadIraq
  2. 2.College of EngineeringUniversity of BaghdadBaghdadIraq
  3. 3.Faculty of EngineeringIsra UniversityAmmanJordan
  4. 4.Faculty of EngineeringPhiladelphia UniversityAmmanJordan

Personalised recommendations